An oil platform, offshore platform, or (colloquially) oil rig is a large construction with amenities for well drilling (optionally), to extract and course of oil and natural gasoline, or to briefly store product until it can be dropped at shore for refining and advertising. In many circumstances, the platform accommodates facilities to home the workforce as nicely.
Relying on the circumstances, the platform may be fastened to the ocean floor, could encompass an synthetic island, or could float. Remote subsea wells might even be related to a platform by circulate traces and by umbilical connections. These sub-sea options might consist of a number of subsea wells, or of one or more manifold centres for multiple wells.
1 Historical past
2 Sorts 2.1 Fastened platforms
2.2 Compliant towers
2.3 Semi-submersible platform
2.Four Jack-up drilling rigs
2.6 Floating production techniques
2.7 Tension-leg platform
2.Eight Gravity-based construction
2.9 Spar platforms
2.10 Usually unmanned installations (NUI)
2.11 Conductor support systems
5.1 Essential personnel
5.2 Incidental personnel
6.2 Ecological results
Round 1891, the first submerged oil wells have been drilled from platforms constructed on piles within the recent waters of the Grand Lake St. Marys (a.okay.a. Mercer County Reservoir) in Ohio. The extensive but shallow reservoir was built from 1837 to 1845 to offer water to the Miami and Erie Canal.
Around 1896, the primary submerged oil wells in salt water were drilled in the portion of the Summerland area extending under the Santa Barbara Channel in California. The wells were drilled from piers extending from land out into the channel.
Other notable early submerged drilling activities occurred on the Canadian side of Lake Erie since 1913 and Caddo Lake in Louisiana within the 1910s. Shortly thereafter, wells have been drilled in tidal zones along the Gulf Coast of Texas and Louisiana. The Goose Creek area close to Baytown, Texas is one such instance. Within the 1920s, drilling was performed from concrete platforms in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela.
The oldest offshore nicely recorded in Infield’s offshore database is the Bibi Eibat properly which came on stream in 1923 in Azerbaijan. Landfill was used to lift shallow parts of the Caspian Sea.
In the early 1930s, the Texas Company developed the first mobile steel barges for drilling in the brackish coastal areas of the gulf.
In 1937, Pure Oil Firm (now a part of Chevron Corporation) and its partner Superior Oil Firm (now a part of ExxonMobil Corporation) used a fixed platform to develop a subject in 14 ft (four.3 m) of water, one mile (1.6 km) offshore of Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana.
In 1946, Magnolia Petroleum Company (now part of ExxonMobil) erected a drilling platform in 18 ft (5.5 m) of water, 18 miles[imprecise] off the coast of St. Mary Parish, Louisiana.[quotation wanted]
In early 1947, Superior Oil erected a drilling/production platform in 20 ft (6.1 m) of water some 18 miles[vague] off Vermilion Parish, Louisiana. Nevertheless it was Kerr-McGee Oil Industries (now Anadarko Petroleum Corporation), as operator for partners Phillips Petroleum (ConocoPhillips) and Stanolind Oil & Gas (BP), that completed its historic Ship Shoal Block 32 effectively in October 1947, months before Superior really drilled a discovery from their Vermilion platform farther offshore. In any case, that made Kerr-McGee’s well the primary oil discovery drilled out of sight of land.[three]
The British Maunsell Forts constructed during World Conflict II are considered the direct predecessors of modern offshore platforms. Having been pre-constructed in a very quick time, they were then floated to their location and positioned on the shallow backside of the Thames and the Mersey estuary.
In 1954, the first jackup oil rig was ordered by Zapata Oil. It was designed by R. G. LeTourneau and featured three electro-mechanically-operated lattice sort legs. Constructed on the shores of the Mississippi river by the LeTourneau Firm, it was launched in December 1955, and christened ‘Scorpion’. The Scorpion was put into operation in Could 1956 off Port Aransas, Texas. It was misplaced in 1969. 
Bigger lake- and sea-primarily based offshore platforms and drilling rig for oil.
These platforms are constructed on concrete or steel legs, or both, anchored straight onto the seabed, supporting the deck with space for drilling rigs, production amenities and crew quarters. Such platforms are, by advantage of their immobility, designed for very long run use (for instance the Hibernia platform). Various kinds of construction are used: steel jacket, concrete caisson, floating steel, and even floating concrete. Steel jackets are structural sections made of tubular steel members, and are normally piled into the seabed. To see extra details regarding Design, building and installation of such platforms consult with: and.
Concrete caisson constructions, pioneered by the Condeep concept, usually have in-constructed oil storage in tanks under the sea floor and these tanks have been often used as a flotation functionality, allowing them to be constructed close to shore (Norwegian fjords and Scottish firths are standard as a result of they are sheltered and deep sufficient) and then floated to their last position where they are sunk to the seabed. Fastened platforms are economically feasible for set up in water depths up to about 520 m (1,710 ft).
These platforms encompass slender, flexible towers and a pile basis supporting a traditional deck for drilling and production operations. Compliant towers are designed to maintain important lateral deflections and forces, and are usually used in water depths ranging from 370 to 910 metres (1,210 to 2,990 ft).
These platforms have hulls (columns and pontoons) of enough buoyancy to cause the structure to float, however of weight adequate to keep the construction upright. Semi-submersible platforms may be moved from place to position and will be ballasted up or down by altering the quantity of flooding in buoyancy tanks. They’re typically anchored by combos of chain, wire rope or polyester rope, or each, throughout drilling and/or production operations, though they will also be kept in place by way of dynamic positioning. Semi-submersibles will be utilized in water depths from 60 to three,000 metres (200 to 10,000 ft).
Jack-up drilling rigs
Jack-up Cellular Drilling Items (or jack-ups), as the name suggests, are rigs that can be jacked up above the sea using legs that may be lowered, much like jacks. These MODUs (Cell Offshore Drilling Units) are sometimes utilized in water depths up to a hundred and twenty metres (390 ft), though some designs can go to 170 m (560 ft) depth. They’re designed to maneuver from place to position, and then anchor themselves by deploying their legs to the ocean bottom using a rack and pinion gear system on each leg.
A drillship is a maritime vessel that has been fitted with drilling apparatus. It is most often used for exploratory drilling of recent oil or gas wells in deep water however can be used for scientific drilling. Early versions have been constructed on a modified tanker hull, however function-constructed designs are used immediately. Most drillships are outfitted with a dynamic positioning system to maintain position over the nicely. They can drill in water depths up to 3,700 m (12,100 ft).[Eleven]
Floating manufacturing methods
The primary varieties of floating manufacturing methods are FPSO (floating production, storage, and offloading system). FPSOs encompass giant monohull structures, usually (but not always) shipshaped, outfitted with processing amenities. These platforms are moored to a location for extended durations, and do not truly drill for oil or fuel. Some variants of these purposes, known as FSO (floating storage and offloading system) or FSU (floating storage unit), are used completely for storage functions, and host very little process gear. This is among the best sources for having floating manufacturing.
The world’s first floating liquefied pure gas (FLNG) facility is at the moment under development. See the part on notably massive examples under.
TLPs are floating platforms tethered to the seabed in a fashion that eliminates most vertical motion of the structure. TLPs are used in water depths up to about 2,000 meters (6,600 feet). The “typical” TLP is a 4-column design which appears just like a semisubmersible. Proprietary versions embody the Seastar and MOSES mini TLPs; they’re relatively low value, utilized in water depths between 180 and 1,300 metres (590 and 4,270 ft). Mini TLPs may also be used as utility, satellite tv for pc or early manufacturing platforms for bigger deepwater discoveries.
Gravity-primarily based construction
A GBS can either be steel or concrete and is normally anchored straight onto the seabed. Steel GBS are predominantly used when there is no or limited availability of crane barges to install a conventional fastened offshore platform, for instance within the Caspian Sea. There are several steel GBS on the planet as we speak (e.g. offshore Turkmenistan Waters (Caspian Sea) and offshore New Zealand). Steel GBS don’t often provide hydrocarbon storage capability. It is mainly put in by pulling it off the yard, by either wet-tow or/and dry-tow, and self-installing by managed ballasting of the compartments with sea water. To place the GBS throughout set up, the GBS may be related to both a transportation barge or another barge (supplied it’s giant sufficient to support the GBS) utilizing strand jacks. The jacks shall be launched regularly while the GBS is ballasted to ensure that the GBS doesn’t sway a lot from target location.
Spars are moored to the seabed like TLPs, but whereas a TLP has vertical tension tethers, a spar has more standard mooring traces. Spars should-date been designed in three configurations: the “standard” one-piece cylindrical hull; the “truss spar”, by which the midsection is composed of truss parts connecting the higher buoyant hull (known as a hard tank) with the bottom comfortable tank containing permanent ballast; and the “cell spar”, which is constructed from a number of vertical cylinders. The spar has more inherent stability than a TLP because it has a large counterweight at the bottom and doesn’t rely upon the mooring to hold it upright. It additionally has the power, by adjusting the mooring line tensions (utilizing chain-jacks hooked up to the mooring lines), to move horizontally and to place itself over wells at some distance from the principle platform location. The primary manufacturing spar was Kerr-McGee’s Neptune, anchored in 590 m (1,940 ft) in the Gulf of Mexico; nonetheless, spars (comparable to Brent Spar) had been beforehand used as FSOs.
Eni’s Devil’s Tower located in 1,710 m (5,610 ft) of water in the Gulf of Mexico, was the world’s deepest spar till 2010. The world’s deepest platform is at the moment the Perdido spar within the Gulf of Mexico, floating in 2,438 metres of water. It is operated by Royal Dutch Shell and was constructed at a price of $three billion.[thirteen]
The primary truss spars were Kerr-McGee’s Boomvang and Nansen.[quotation needed] The first (and only) cell spar is Kerr-McGee’s Purple Hawk.
Normally unmanned installations (NUI)
These installations, sometimes called toadstools, are small platforms, consisting of little more than a well bay, helipad and emergency shelter. They are designed to be operated remotely under normal conditions, only to be visited occasionally for routine maintenance or effectively work.
Conductor assist methods
These installations, often known as satellite platforms, are small unmanned platforms consisting of little more than a effectively bay and a small process plant. They are designed to function along side a static production platform which is connected to the platform by circulate lines or by umbilical cable, or both.
Significantly large examples
The Petronius Platform is a compliant tower within the Gulf of Mexico modeled after the Hess Baldpate platform, which stands 2,000 ft (610 m) above the ocean flooring. It is one of the world’s tallest buildings.
The Hibernia platform in Canada is the world’s largest (when it comes to weight) offshore platform, located on the Jeanne D’Arc Basin, in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Newfoundland. This gravity base construction (GBS), which sits on the ocean ground, is 111 metres (364 ft) high and has storage capacity for 1.3 million barrels (210,000 m3) of crude oil in its eighty five-metre (279 ft) high caisson. The platform acts as a small concrete island with serrated outer edges designed to withstand the impression of an iceberg. The GBS accommodates manufacturing storage tanks and the remainder of the void space is stuffed with ballast with your complete construction weighing in at 1.2 million tons.
Royal Dutch Shell is at the moment growing the primary Floating Liquefied Pure Fuel (FLNG) facility, which can be situated approximately 200 km off the coast of Western Australia and is due for completion round 2017.[Sixteen] When completed, it will be the biggest floating offshore facility. It is anticipated to be roughly 488m lengthy and 74m large with displacement of round 600,000t when fully ballasted.
Upkeep and supply
A typical oil production platform is self-enough in vitality and water wants, housing electrical era, water desalinators and all the tools necessary to process oil and fuel such that it may be both delivered immediately onshore by pipeline or to a floating platform or tanker loading facility, or both. Components within the oil/gasoline production course of embody wellhead, manufacturing manifold, production separator, glycol course of to dry fuel, fuel compressors, water injection pumps, oil/gasoline export metering and important oil line pumps.
Bigger platforms assisted by smaller ESVs (emergency assist vessels) like the British Iolair which are summoned when something has gone incorrect, e.g. when a search and rescue operation is required. During regular operations, PSVs (platform provide vessels) keep the platforms provisioned and equipped, and AHTS vessels can even supply them, as well as tow them to location and serve as standby rescue and firefighting vessels.
Not all of the next personnel are present on every platform. On smaller platforms, one worker can perform a quantity of various jobs. The following also aren’t names formally recognized in the trade:
OIM (offshore set up manager) who is the last word authority throughout his/her shift and makes the important decisions concerning the operation of the platform;
– operations workforce leader (OTL);
– offshore operations engineer (OOE) who is the senior technical authority on the platform;
– PSTL or operations coordinator for managing crew modifications;
– dynamic positioning operator, navigation, ship or vessel maneuvering (MODU), station keeping, hearth and gas techniques operations within the occasion of incident;
– automation techniques specialist, to configure, maintain and troubleshoot the method control techniques (PCS), process security systems, emergency support methods and vessel administration programs;
– second mate to meet manning requirements of flag state, operates quick rescue craft, cargo operations, fire workforce leader;
– third mate to fulfill manning necessities of flag state, function fast rescue craft, cargo operations, fire team leader;
– ballast management operator to function fireplace and gasoline systems;
– crane operators to operate the cranes for lifting cargo across the platform and between boats;
– scaffolders to rig up scaffolding for when it’s required for staff to work at height;
– coxswains to maintain the lifeboats and manning them if necessary;
– management room operators, particularly FPSO or production platforms;
– catering crew, including folks tasked with performing important features similar to cooking, laundry and cleansing the accommodation;
– manufacturing techs to run the manufacturing plant;
helicopter pilot(s) living on some platforms that have a helicopter based mostly offshore and transporting employees to different platforms or to shore on crew modifications;
– upkeep technicians (instrument, electrical or mechanical).
– Absolutely qualified medic.
– Radio operator to function all radio communications.
– Store Keeper, protecting the inventory effectively equipped
Drill crew will probably be on board if the set up is performing drilling operations. A drill crew will normally comprise:
Welders and Welder Helpers
Nicely companies crew will be on board for well work. The crew will usually comprise:
– Nicely services supervisor
– Wireline or coiled tubing operators
– Pump operator
– Pump hanger and ranger
The character of their operation—extraction of risky substances sometimes below extreme strain in a hostile environment—means threat; accidents and tragedies happen repeatedly. The U.S. Minerals Administration Service reported 69 offshore deaths, 1,349 injuries, and 858 fires and explosions on offshore rigs within the Gulf of Mexico from 2001 to 2010. On July 6, 1988, 167 individuals died when Occidental Petroleum’s Piper Alpha offshore production platform, on the Piper area within the UK sector of the North Sea, exploded after a gas leak. The ensuing investigation performed by Lord Cullen and publicized in the primary Cullen Report was extremely critical of various areas, including, but not limited to, management inside the corporate, the design of the construction, and the Permit to Work System. The report was commissioned in 1988, and was delivered November 1990. The accident drastically accelerated the follow of providing living lodging on separate platforms, away from those used for extraction.
The offshore will be in itself a hazardous atmosphere. In March 1980, the ‘flotel’ (floating lodge) platform Alexander L. Kielland capsized in a storm in the North Sea with the lack of 123 lives.
In 2001, Petrobras 36 in Brazil exploded and sank 5 days later, killing 11 folks.
Given the number of grievances and conspiracy theories that involve the oil business, and the importance of fuel/oil platforms to the economy, platforms within the United States are believed to be potential terrorist targets.[quotation needed] Agencies and military items accountable for maritime counter-terrorism within the US (Coast Guard, Navy SEALs, Marine Recon) usually train for platform raids.[quotation needed]
On April 21, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon platform, fifty two miles off-shore of Venice, Louisiana, (property of Transocean and leased to BP) exploded, killing 11 people, and sank two days later. The resulting undersea gusher, conservatively estimated to exceed 20 million US gallons (76,000 m3) as of early June, 2010, became the worst oil spill in US history, eclipsing the Exxon Valdez oil spill.
In British waters, the cost of removing all platform rig buildings totally was estimated in 2013 at £30 billion.
Aquatic organisms invariably attach themselves to the undersea parts of oil platforms, turning them into synthetic reefs. In the Gulf of Mexico and offshore California, the waters round oil platforms are well-liked destinations for sports and industrial fishermen, because of the greater numbers of fish near the platforms. The United States and Brunei have lively Rigs-to-Reefs programs, wherein former oil platforms are left in the sea, both in place or towed to new locations, as everlasting artificial reefs. Within the US Gulf of Mexico, as of September 2012, 420 former oil platforms, about 10 % of decommissioned platforms, have been converted to permanent reefs.
On the US Pacific coast, marine biologist Milton Love has proposed that oil platforms off California be retained as synthetic reefs, as a substitute of being dismantled (at great price), because he has discovered them to be havens for lots of the species of fish that are in any other case declining in the region, within the course of eleven years of research. Love is funded mainly by authorities companies, but in addition in small half by the California Synthetic Reef Enhancement Program. Divers have been used to evaluate the fish populations surrounding the platforms.
Deepest oil platforms
The world’s deepest oil platform is the floating Perdido, which is a spar platform within the Gulf of Mexico in a water depth of two,438 metres (7,999 ft).
Non-floating compliant towers and fixed platforms, by water depth:
Petronius Platform, 535 m (1,755 ft)
Baldpate Platform, 502 m (1,647 ft)
Troll A Platform, 472 m (1,549 ft)
Bullwinkle Platform, 413 m (1,355 ft)
Pompano Platform, 393 m (1,289 ft)
Benguela-Belize Lobito-Tomboco Platform, 390 m (1,280 ft)
Gulfaks C Platform, 380 m (1,250 ft)
Tombua Landana Platform, 366 m (1,201 ft)
Harmony Platform, 366 m (1,201 ft)
North Sea oil
Offshore concrete structure
Offshore geotechnical engineering
Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Fixed Platforms Located on the Continental Shelf
United States offshore drilling debate
Conductor support system
^ Ronalds, BF (2005). “Applicability ranges for offshore oil and gasoline manufacturing facilities”. Marine Structures. 18 (three): 251-263 – through Elsevier ScienceDirect.
^ Ref accessed 02-12-89 by technical aspects and coast mapping. Kerr-McGee
^ a b Mission Redsand
^ 11.2 Azerbaijan’s Oil History Brief Oil Chronology since 1920 Part 2 by Mir-Yusif Mir-Babayev
^ http://petrowiki.org/Historical past_of_offshore_drilling_models
^ Workplace of Ocean Exploration and Analysis (15 December 2008). “Types of Offshore Oil and Fuel Constructions”. NOAA Ocean Explorer: Expedition to the Deep Slope. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
^ “Chevron Drillship”. 2010-03-11. Retrieved 2010-05-24.
^ Shell begins manufacturing at Perdido
^ Fahey, Jonathan, Related Press, “Deep Gulf drilling thrives 18 mos. after BP spill”, Japan Times, 4 January 2012, p. 11; “The offshore drilling life: cramped and harmful”, 1 January 2012.
^ “First Cell Spar”. Retrieved 2010-05-24.
^ “What’s the World’s Tallest Constructing?”. All About Skyscrapers. 2009. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
^ http://gastoday.com.au/information/flng_will get_severe/042981/
^ “Potential for big spill after oil rig sinks”. MSNBC. 2010-04-22. Retrieved 2010-06-04.
^ “North Sea platform collapses”. BBC Information. 1980-03-27. Retrieved 2008-06-19.
^ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Gulf decomissioning and Rigs-to-Reefs, FAQs, 2012.
^ Page M, Dugan J, Love M, Lenihan H. “Ecological Performance and Trophic Links: Comparisons Among Platforms And Pure Reefs For Selected Fish And Their Prey”. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
^ SA Cox; CR Beaver; QR Dokken & JR Rooker. (1996). “Diver-based underneath water survey methods used to evaluate fish populations and fouling community growth on offshore oil and gas platform buildings”. In: MA Lang, CC Baldwin (Eds.) the Diving for Science…1996, “Methods and Methods of Underwater Analysis”. Proceedings of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences (16th Annual Scientific Diving Symposium). Retrieved 2008-06-27.
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