Gasoline or petrol is a gas, derived from petroleum crude oil, to be used in spark-ignited inside combustion engines. Standard gasoline is usually a blended mixture of more than 200 totally different hydrocarbon liquids ranging from these containing four carbon atoms to these containing eleven or 12 carbon atoms. It has an initial boiling point at atmospheric pressure of about 35 °C (95 °F) and a closing boiling point of about 200 °C (395 °F). Gasoline is used primarily as gasoline for the internal combustion engines in automotive autos as well in some small airplanes.
In Canada and the United States, the phrase “gasoline” is often used and it is often shortened to simply “gas” although it is a liquid fairly than a gas. In reality, gasoline-dispensing amenities are known as “fuel stations”.
Most current or former Commonwealth nations use the time period “petrol” and their dispensing services are known as “petrol stations”. The term “petrogasoline” can be used sometimes. In some European countries and elsewhere, the term “benzin” (or a variant of that word) is used to indicate gasoline.
In aviation, “mogas” (an abbreviation for “motor gasoline”) is used to differentiate automotive car fuel from aviation gasoline often called “avgas”.
1 Gasoline production from crude oil
2 Properties that decide the performance of gasoline 2.1 Octane rating
2.2 Vapor pressure
2.Three Sulfur content
2.4 Storage stability
3.1 In the United States 3.1.1 Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (BOB)
Gasoline production from crude oil
Gasoline and other finish-products are produced from petroleum crude oil in petroleum refineries. For a lot of reasons it is very difficult to quantify the quantity of gasoline produced by refining a given amount of crude oil:
– There are quite literally hundreds of various crude oil sources worldwide and every crude oil has its own distinctive mixture of 1000’s of hydrocarbons and other materials.
– There are additionally tons of of crude oil refineries worldwide and every of them is designed to course of a selected crude oil or a particular set of crude oils. Furthermore, every refinery has its personal unique configuration of petroleum refining processes that produces its own distinctive set of gasoline mix elements. Some crude oils have a better proportion of hydrocarbons with very high boiling points than other crude oils and therefore require more complex refinery configurations to provide lower boiling point hydrocarbons that are usable in gasolines.
– There are an incredible many alternative gasoline specifications which were mandated by various native, state or national governmental businesses.
– In lots of geographical areas, the quantity of gasoline produced during the summer season (i.e., the season of the greatest demand for automotive gasoline) varies considerably from the amount produced during the winter season.
However, as a mean of all of the refineries working in the United States in 2007, refining a barrel of crude oil (i.e., 42 gallons or 159 litres) yielded 19.2 gallons (72.7 litres) of finish-product gasoline as shown within the adjoining picture. That may be a volumetric yield of forty five.7 percent. The average refinery yield of gasoline in other countries could also be totally different.
From the viewpoint of efficiency when utilized in automotive spark-ignited internal combustion engines, crucial characteristic of a gasoline is its octane score (mentioned later in this text). Paraffinic hydrocarbons (alkanes) wherein all of the carbon atoms are in a straight chain have the bottom octane ratings. Hydrocarbons with more difficult configurations corresponding to aromatics, olefins and branched paraffins have a lot larger octane ratings. To that finish, most of the refining processes used in petroleum refineries are designed to provide hydrocarbons with these more difficult configurations.
A few of an important refinery course of streams which might be blended together to obtain the end-product gasolines are:
Reformate (produced in a catalytic reformer): has a excessive content of aromatic hydrocarbons and a very low content material of olefinic hydrocarbons (alkenes).
Catalytically cracked gasoline (produced in a fluid catalytic cracker): has a high content material of olefinic hydrocarbons and a reasonable amount of aromatic hydrocarbons.
Hydrocrackate (produced in a hydrocracker): has a moderate content of aromatic hydrocarbons.
Alkylate (produced in an alkylation unit): has a high content material of highly branched paraffinic hydrocarbons such as isooctane.
Isomerate (produced in a catalytic isomerization unit): has a high content material of the branched isomers of pentane and hexane.
Properties that determine the performance of gasoline
The adjoining image depicts what happens in one of the combustion cylinders of a gasoline-fuelled, spark-ignited inside combustion engine working in a four-stroke cycle. Every cylinder within the engine has a movable piston that may slide upward and downward within the cylinder. Though not proven in the picture, the bottom of the piston is related to a rotating central crankshaft by a so-referred to as connecting rod. The cycle begins with the piston at the highest of the cylinder (i.e., the place the piston is farthest away from the crankshaft axis) and the inlet and exhaust valves are closed. Then:
– Throughout the intake stroke, the piston is pulled downward by the rotating crankshaft and the inlet valve opens to admit a mixture of fuel and air.
– Through the compression stroke, the inlet valve closes and the piston is pushed upward by rotating crankshaft which compresses the fuel-air mixture.
– During the facility stroke, the compressed gas-air mixture is ignited by a spark from the spark plug. The resulting increase in temperature and pressure of the burning gasoline forces the piston down which, in turn, forces the crankshaft to rotate.
– In the course of the exhaust stroke, the outlet valve opens and the rotating crankshaft pushes the piston upward which forces the combustion product gases to be exhausted from the cylinder. That ends the four-stroke cycle and the cycle then begins again.
In a typical a number of-cylinder engine, the timing of the each cylinder’s cycle is such that the crankshaft is kept in continuous rotation.
If the gasoline spontaneously ignites and detonates (i.e., explodes) before it is ignited by the spark plug, it causes an abnormal phenomenon often known as knocking, pinging or spark knock. The knocking is quite audible and extended knocking will injury an engine.
As briefly talked about above, crucial performance characteristic of a gasoline is its octane ranking, which is a measure of how resistant the gasoline is to knocking. In actual fact, the octane ranking is generally referred to because the Anti-knock Index. The octane ranking is based upon an arbitrary scale listed relative to a liquid mixture of iso-octane (C8H18), which is 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, and n-heptane (C7H16). Iso-octane (see adjoining picture), with a branched structure and a excessive resistance to knocking, has arbitrarily been assigned an octane rating of 100. N-heptane (see adjoining image), with a straight-chain construction and poor resistance to knocking has arbitrarily been assigned an octane rating of zero.
The octane score of a particular gasoline is measured by utilizing it in a single-cylinder take a look at engine with a variable compression ratio and adjusting the ratio to produce a standard knock intensity as recorded by an instrument often known as a knockmeter. By comparability to tabulated outcomes from comparable testing of assorted mixtures of iso-octane and n-heptane at the identical compression ratio, the octane rating of the gasoline is determined. For example, if the gasoline take a look at outcomes match those of a mixture containing 90 volume % iso-octane and 10 volume % n-heptane, then the octane rating of the gasoline is taken to be ninety.
The octane score is measured at two totally different operational situations. The ranking measured on the extra extreme operating conditions is named the Motor Octane Quantity (MON) [eight] and the score measured at the less severe conditions known as the Research Octane Number (RON) . The Motor Octane Quantity is extra consultant of the performance of a gasoline when utilized in an automotive automobile operated below load. For many gasoline formulations, the MON is about eight to 10 points lower than the RON.
In the United States and Canada, the octane rating proven on the pumps in gasoline dispensing stations is the typical of the gasoline’s RON and the MON. That common is typically referred to as the Pump Octane Number (PON), the Anti-Knock Index (AKI), the Highway Octane Quantity (RdON) and fairly often simply as (RON + MON)/2) or (R + M)/2. In Europe and Australia and other countries, the octane score proven on the pumps is most frequently the RON.
As a broad generality, the higher is the compression ratio of a spark-ignited internal combustion engine, the upper is the performance stage of the engine and the upper is the octane rating required for the gasoline gas. The design of an engine determines its compression ratio and, subsequently, the required gasoline octane. Using a gasoline with an octane rating greater than an engine requires is not going to enhance the engine’s performance, it’s going to merely price extra.
The vapor strain of a gasoline is a measure of its propensity to evaporate (i.e., its volatility) and high vapor pressures lead to high evaporative emissions of smog-forming hydrocarbons which are undesirable from the environmental viewpoint. However, from the viewpoint of gasoline efficiency:
– The gasoline must be unstable sufficient that engines can begin easily at the lowest anticipated temperature within the geographical space of the gasoline’s expected market. For that reason, in most areas, gasoline marketed through the winter season has a better vapor pressure than gasoline marketed in the summer time season.
– Too high a volatility could trigger extreme vapor resulting in vapor locking within the fuel pump and gasoline piping.
Thus, gasoline producers should present gasolines that make potential the easy beginning of engines and keep away from vapor locking problems while at the same time complying with the environmental regulatory limitations on hydrocarbon emissions.
Sulfur content material
When gasoline is combusted, any sulfur compounds in the gasoline are transformed into gaseous sulfur dioxide emissions which are undesirable from the environmental viewpoint. A number of the sulfur dioxide also combines with the water vapor formed when gasoline combusts and the result’s the formation of an acidic, corrosive gas that can harm the engine and its exhaust system. Furthermore, sulfur interferes with the effectivity of the on-board catalytic converters (discussed later in this text).
Thus, sulfur compounds in gasoline are highly undesirable from both the environmental viewpoint or the engine performance viewpoint.[thirteen] Many countries now mandate that the sulfur content material of gasoline be restricted to 10 ppm by weight.
Gasoline saved in gasoline tanks and different containers will, in time, endure oxidative degradation and kind sticky resins known as gums. Such gums can precipitate out of the gasoline and trigger fouling of the various elements of internal combustion engines which reduces the performance of the engines and in addition makes it more durable to start them. Comparatively small amounts of varied anti-oxidation additives are included in end-product gasoline to improve the gasoline stability during storage by inhibiting the formation of gums.
Different additives are additionally provided in end-product gasolines, equivalent to corrosion inhibitors to guard gasoline storage tanks, freezing point depressants to stop icing, and colour dyes for security or governmental regulatory necessities.[three]
As discussed later in this article, many gasolines contain ethanol which is an alcohol with the components C2H5OH. Gasoline is insoluble in water however ethanol and water are mutually soluble. Thus, finish-product gasolines containing ethanol will, at certain temperatures and water concentrations, separate into a gasoline phase and an aqueous ethanol part.
For instance, the adjacent graph exhibits that section separation will occur in a gasoline, at temperatures of 5 to 16 °C (forty to 60 °F), containing 10 quantity percent ethanol and as little as zero.Forty to zero.50 quantity percent water.
For a similar temperature range, the fraction of water that an ethanol-containing gasoline can comprise without part separation will increase with the proportion of ethanol. Thus, gasolines containing more than 10 quantity % ethanol might be much less likely to expertise part separation.
Gasoline formulations and air quality regulations
In the United States
There isn’t a “customary” composition or set of specifications for gasoline. In the United States, due to the advanced national and particular person state and native packages to enhance air high quality, in addition to local refining and marketing decisions, petroleum refiners must provide fuels that meet many alternative requirements. State and local air quality rules involving gasoline overlap with nationwide regulations and that results in adjoining or close by areas having significantly different gasoline specifications. According to an in depth research in 2006,  there have been at the least 18 totally different gasoline formulations required across the United States in 2002. Since many petroleum refiners within the United States produce three grades of gasoline and the specifications for gasoline marketed within the summer season range significantly from the specs in the winter season, that number could have been vastly understated. In any occasion, the variety of gasoline formulations has probably increased fairly a bit since 2002. In the United States, the various gasoline formulations are sometimes called “boutique fuels”. Normally, a lot of the gasoline specs meet the necessities of the so-known as Reformulated Gasoline (RFG) mandated by federal regulation and implemented by the U.S. Environmental Protection Company (U.S. EPA).
Some of the key properties and gasoline parts centered upon by the various national and state or local regulatory packages are:
Vapor stress: The vapor pressure of a gasoline is of concern because evaporative emissions of the hydrocarbons within the gasoline lead to the formation of ozone within the ambiance which reacts with vehicular and industrial emissions of gaseous nitrogen oxides (NOx) to type what known as photochemical smog. Smog is a mix of the words smoke and fog and historically referred to the mixture of smoke and sulfur dioxide that resulted from the burning of coal for heating buildings in places equivalent to London, England during the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century. Trendy photochemical smog doesn’t come from coal burning however from vehicular and industrial emissions of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides. It seems as a brownish haze over giant urban areas and is irritating to the eyes and lungs.
Nitrogen oxides: Varied nitrogen oxides (NOx) are formed in the course of the combustion of gasoline in vehicles and the combustion of other fuels in industrial services. NOx is among the substances concerned within the atmospheric chemistry that produces photochemical smog and, as such, is a distinguished air pollutant. In truth, it is without doubt one of the six so-referred to as “criteria air pollutants” which might be regulated by National Ambient Air Quality Requirements (NAAQS) of the United States. The NOx emitted by vehicular engines using gasoline are largely managed by the use of on-board devices, called catalytic converters, installed on most modern cars and different vehicles. They convert the NOx emissions into gaseous nitrogen and oxygen. Additionally they convert any gaseous carbon monoxide emissions into gaseous carbon dioxide in addition to changing any unburned gasoline hydrocarbons into gaseous carbon dioxide and water vapor.
Toxic metals: Tetraethyl lead (TEL) Within the 1920’s, petroleum refining technology was quite primitive and produced gasolines with an octane ranking of about 40 – 60. But automotive engines had been quickly being improved and required higher gasolines, which led to a search for octane rating enhancers. That search culminated in 1921 in the event of tetraethyl lead (TEL), a colorless, viscous liquid with the chemical components of (CH3CH2)4Pb. Despite ethanol being widely recognized in its place anti-knock additive, the inexpensive TEL shortly grew to become commercially accessible as what was called TEL fluid, which contained sixty one.5 weight % TEL. The addition of as little as 0.Eight ml of that TEL fluid per litre (equivalent to zero.5 gram of lead per litre) of gasoline resulted in significant octane score increases. Manufacturing and sale of “leaded gasoline” was briefly banned in 1925 by the Surgeon Normal, and a panel of consultants was appointed to investigate a number of fatalities that had “occurred within the manufacture and mixing of the concentrated tetraethyl lead”. Then, in 1927, the Surgeon Basic set a voluntary commonplace for the petroleum refining business to comply with in mixing tetraethyl lead with gasoline. The standard was three cubic centimeters per gallon (cm3/gal), corresponding to the maximum then in use among refiners, and thus imposed no actual restraint. For about the next 50 years, TEL was used as the most price effective approach to lift the octane score of gasolines. Throughout that period, petroleum refining expertise grew until excessive-octane gasolines could, the truth is, be produced without utilizing TEL. Additionally, in about the 1940’s, it was discovered that the lead being emitted in the exhaust gases from vehicular inside combustion engines was a toxic air pollutant that critically affected human health. Because of its toxicity and the truth that catalytic converters being put in in autos couldn’t tolerate the presence of lead, the U.S. EPA launched an initiative in 1972 to section out using TEL in the United States and it was fully banned to be used in on-street vehicles as of January 1996. Utilizing TEL in race vehicles, airplanes, marine engines and farm equipment continues to be permitted. TEL usage has also been phased out by most nations worldwide. As of 2008, the only nations still allowing in depth use of TEL are the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Myanamar, and Yeman.
Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) In Canada, MMT has been used as an octane enhancer in gasoline since 1976. Additionally it is permitted to be used as a gasoline octane enhancer in Argentina, Australia, Bulgaria, France, Russia, United States and conditionally in New Zealand. MMT is a yellow liquid with chemical system of (CH3C5H4)Mn(CO)three. Based on the U.S. EPA, ingested manganese is a required factor of the weight loss program at very low ranges however it is usually a neurotoxin and could cause irreversible neurological illness at excessive levels of inhalation. The U.S. EPA has a concern that the usage of MMT in gasoline may increase inhalation manganese exposures. After completing a 1994 danger evaluation on using MMT in gasoline, the U.S. EPA was unable to determine if there is a risk to the public health from exposure to emissions of MMT gasoline. As of now (2009), gasoline within the United States is allowed to contain MMT at a stage equal to zero.00826 g/L (1/32 g/gallon) of manganese. Nonetheless, there are still many considerations in regards to the attainable hostile health effects from the usage of MMT and less than one % of the gasoline marketed within the United States contains MMT.
Other toxic compounds: Gasoline accommodates some benzene (C6H6) which is an aromatic compound that may be a known human carcinogen. For that cause, the amount of benzene in gasoline is proscribed by environmental laws. Normally, the combustion of aromatics can result in the formation of other compounds which have deleterious effects on human health, corresponding to aldehydes, butadiene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Therefore, the full amount of aromatics in gasoline can also be limited by environmental rules.
Olefins: Photochemical smog is formed by varied atmospheric chemistry reactions between nitrogen oxides and what are referred to as reactive hydrocarbons within the presence of sunlight. Within the context of photochemical smog formation, some hydrocarbons are more reactive than others. For instance, olefins are very reactive and methane isn’t reactive to any extent. For that cause, the olefin content of gasolines is restricted by environmental regulations.
Sulfur: Any sulfur compounds in gasoline will end in combustion exhaust emissions of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere. Such emissions contribute to the formation of so-known as acid rain and in addition they interfere with the on-board catalytic converters and reduce their effectivity. Subsequently, the sulfur content of gasoline is restricted by environmental rules.
Oxygen: Oxygen-containing compounds known as oxygenates such methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) with a chemical system of C5H12O or ethanol with a chemical formula of C2H5OH are added to gasolines for 2 causes. The first cause is that the oxygen reduces the emissions of unburned hydrocarbons as well because the emissions of carbon monoxide. The second cause is that they significantly enhance the octane score of gasolines which makes up for the octane rating loss resulting from the limiting of the high-octane aromatics and olefins as effectively because the banning of TEL usage. MTBE was broadly used throughout the 1990s as an oxygenate in the United States till it was found to be polluting underground water provides. In the United States, it has now been largely replaced as an oxygenate by ethanol. Gasolines containing ethanol are now bought in every state within the United States and practically half of the gasoline sold in the United States now accommodates as much as 10 volume % ethanol either as an octane enhancer or to fulfill air quality necessities.
As mentioned earlier above, there are an incredible many alternative units of specs or standards for gasolines marketed in the United States. The specifications tabulated beneath are these that have been mandated by regulation within the state of California. They’re identified because the California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) Section 3 Requirements and are maybe probably the most environmentally restrictive specs within the United States:
(b) Reid vapor strain (RVP) is measured as per ASTM method D-323 and differs slightly from the true
absolute vapor strain.89 kPa
(d) The Reid vapor stress flat limit of 6.Ninety psi applies when a California gasoline producer or importer
uses the CaRFG Part three Predictive Model to certify a gasoline blend not containing ethanol. Otherwise,
the 7.Zero psi restrict applies.
(e) ppmw = components per million by weight and ppmv = components per million by volume.
(f) °C = (°F 32)(5/9)
(g) Quantity % ethanol in gasoline = [(zero.3529/weight % oxygen) zero.0006] . Thus, 1.Eight – 2.2 weight %
oxygen in a gasoline equals 5.1 – 6.3 volume % ethanol in the gasoline.
Blendstock for Oxygenate Mixing (BOB)
Some water usually exists in immediately’s gasoline pipeline programs and in many gasoline storage services. Ethanol may be very soluble in water and the resulting aqueous options of ethanol are very corrosive. For that motive, ethanol is not blended into gasoline at the producing petroleum refineries. As a substitute, ethanol is blended into gasoline at terminals close to the end user markets.
In other words, to meet the present specification required of reformulated gasolines, petroleum refiners in the United States mainly produce mixing stocks to which ethanol is added at terminals or other factors at or close to the tip-consumer markets. A blendstock to be utilized in producing a reformulated gasolines is named a BOB (Blendstock for Oxygenated Blending). A BOB to be used in producing a reformulated gasoline meeting the specifications mandated by the U.S. EPA is called an RBOB. A BOB to be utilized in producing reformulated gasolines assembly the California specs is known as a CaRBOB or CARBOB.
As of mid-2008, gasoline quality regulation in Canada is mostly underneath provincial jurisdiction, apart from some national jurisdiction over sulfur, benzene, lead, and the flexibility to require sure quantities of renewable fuels comparable to ethanol. Few provinces regulate many points of gasoline high quality aside from Reid vapor pressure. The exception to this is the province of Manitoba, which requires gasoline to comply with the voluntary national customary CGSB three.5, Automotive Gasoline developed by the Canadian General Requirements Board (CGSB), a element of Canada’s Department of Public Works and Authorities Services.
The three gasoline high quality limits mandated nationally are:
Sulfur: 30 ppmw maximum
Benzene: 1 quantity % most
Lead: Banned utterly
The key particulars of the voluntary nationwide customary CGSB 3.5, Automotive Gasoline are available in Appendix B of a report printed in 2008.
The present requirements developed by the European Union and the requirements developed by the European Vehicle Manufacturers Affiliation (ACEA) are introduced beneath. The person international locations in the European Union in addition to any other European international locations might have their very own standards as effectively. Other limits apply for markets with lower ambient temperatures.
(g) The place oxygenates are used, ethers are most popular. The place up to 10% quantity % of ethanol is
permitted by existing rules, the gasoline should meet all the other limits above. Methanol is
prohibited. Propanol and better alcohols are restricted to zero.1 quantity % or less.
In Australia and New Zealand
The present gasoline requirements developed by the nationwide governments of Australia and New Zealand are introduced below. The person states in Australia may have also developed gasoline standards, and the identical may be true of the regional councils in New Zealand.
(b) Australian customary has no vapor stress or volatility specification and no distillation specification
other than the final finish level (FBP).
(d) Flexible Volatility Index is Vapor strain in kPa + 0.7(E70)].
(e) mg/kg = ppmw
(f) The brand new Zealand sulfur normal is a hundred and fifty ppmw as of January 2008. Nonetheless, it consists of a press release
that there’s an “final requirement of 10 – 15 ppmw”.
(g) Permitted most volume % of oxygenates aside from ethanol: Ethers = 1% and tertiary butanol = zero.5%.
(h) Permitted maximum quantity % of oxygenates apart from ethanol: Complete other oxygenates = 1 %.
The gasoline high quality requirements beneath apply solely to the most important cities and there are plans for reducing the maximum sulfur content material from one hundred fifty ppmw to 50 ppmw in the close to future. The standards for the rural areas of India are considerably much less stringent.
(b) Values are (Research Octane Number + Motor Octane Quantity) / 2 …
1.0 1.1 Gasoline FAQ – Part2 of four, Bruce Hamilton, Industrial Analysis Ltd. (IRL), a Crown Research Institute of new Zealand.
2.0 2.1 Gary, J.H. and Handwerk, G.E. (2001). Petroleum Refining Know-how and Economics, 4th Version. Marcel Dekker, Inc.. ISBN zero-8247-0482-7.
3.Zero three.1 3.2 The Relation Between Gasoline Quality, Octane Quantity and the Environment, Rafat Assi, Nationwide Mission Manager of Jordan’s Second National Communications on Local weather Change, presented at Jordan National Workshop on Lead Phase-out, United Nations Environment Programme, July 2008, Amman, Jordan.
James Speight (2008). Artificial Fuels Handbook, 1st Edition. McGraw-Hill, pages 92-93. ISBN 0-07-149023-X.
The place Does My Gasoline Come from?, U.S. Division of Energy, Energy Info Administration, April 2008.
See the schematic process circulate diagram in the Petroleum refining processes article.
Frank Kreith and D. Yogi Goswami (Editors) (2004). CRC Handbook of Mechanical Engineering, 2nd Version. CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0866-6.
As per the ASTM test method D2700
As per the ASTM test methodology D2699
10.Zero 10.1 David S.J. Jones and Peter P. Pujado (Editors) (2006). Handbook of Petroleum Processing, First Version. Springer. ISBN 1-4020-2819-9.
John McKetta (Editor) (1992). Petroleum Processing Handbook. CRC Press. ISBN 0-8247-8681-5.
12.0 12.1 12.2 CRS Report for Congress “Boutique Fuels” and Reformulated Gasoline: Harmonization of Fuel Requirements (Might 10, 2006) , Brent D. Yacobucci, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress
Petrol and Diesel, Questions and Answers From website of recent Zealand Ministry of Economic Growth.
E10 & E85 and Different Alternate Fuels Bruce Bauman, American Petroleum Institute (API)
Boutique Fuels: State and native Clear Fuels Programs From the web site of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
EPAct Section 1541 Boutique Fuels Report to Congress Report No. EPA420-R-06-901, December 2006, co-authored by the U.S. EPA and the U.S. Department of Power.
Definition of Tetraethyl Lead
18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 Lead Poisoning: A Historic Perspective
19.0 19.1 19.2 Ethyl-leaded gasoline
Phasing Lead Out of Gasoline a report issued by the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP)
Prohibition on Gasoline Containing Lead or Lead Additives for Highway Use From the web site of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Asia-Pacific Lead Matrix a report issued by the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP)
West Asia, Middle East and North Africa Lead Matrix a report issued by the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP)
24.Zero 24.1 Feedback on the Gasoline Additive MMT Retrieved from the U.S. EPA webpage on April 10, 2009
Methylcyclopentadienyl Manganese Tricarbonyl (MMT): A Science and Policy Assessment Revealed by the Worldwide Council on Clear Transportation, January 2009
E10 and other Low-Degree Ethanol Blends From webpage of the U.S. Division of Vitality.
Last Regulation Order 2007 Amendments to California Section three Reformulated Gasoline Regulation, California Code of Laws, Title thirteen, Part 2260
California Phase 3 Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) From the web site of the California Air Resources Board.
Miscellaneous Cleanup Amendments to the California Reformulated Gasoline Regulations From the web site of the California Air Sources Board.
30.0 30.1 Appendix C: Utilizing Ethanol in Gasoline A part of a report by the Vitality Information Administration entitled Evaluation of Chosen Transportation Fuel Points Related to Proposed Vitality Laws – Summary
31.0 31.1 Methodology and Specs Guide, 2008 A Platts publication.
32.Zero 32.1 Fuel High quality in Canada A 2008 report developed by The Pembina Institute for the Ass