Crude oil occurs naturally in the bottom and is a complex mixture of natural liquids, formed thousands and thousands of years in the past. Crude oil varies from oilfield to oilfield in colour and composition, from pale yellow, low viscosity fluid to heavy black “treacleconsistencies. Of little use in its natural state, the worth of crude oil lies in its bi-merchandise together with fuels, lubricating oils, waxes, asphalt and petrochemicals.
Crude oil incorporates a mixture of hydrocarbon compounds and comparatively small quantities of other supplies resembling oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, salt and water.
Crude oil is sourced mainly from Mexico, Venezuela and Ecuador.
The normal business unit measure for petroleum volumes is a Barrel (bbl).
1 BBL = 42 US Gallons = 34.9726 Imperial Gallon = 158.987 Litres.
There are several elements which influenced the location of the refinery. These include:
– Location in an Industrial Zone, which minimizes threat to surrounding communities and the setting;
– Proximity to sea provides: – Accessibility to ocean going vessels for receiving crude oil and finished merchandise, as well as from pipelines positioned underneath the sea.
– An abundant supply of seawater for hearth preventing.
– Simple dispersal of waste gases in a seaward route on account of prevailing wind path.
– Underground provide of well water for cooling and boiler feed water. (National Water Fee sources provide extra “make-upwater, when necessary).
Refining begins with the separation of crude oil into completely different fractions by distillation. The fractions are additional treated and processed to transform them into mixtures of more useful saleable merchandise by numerous strategies such as cracking, reforming, alkalization, polymerization and isomerization. These mixtures of latest compounds are then separated utilizing methods such as fractionation and solvent extraction.
Petrojam is a hydro-skimming refinery
This describes a refining course of in which totally different petroleum fractions are merely separated out of the crude oil distillation and no significant extra conversion of the fractions into other compounds is finished. At Petrojam, the one secondary conversion process undertaken is the conversion of naptha (the gasoline fraction), right into a excessive-octane grade compound.
Hydroskimming – The refinery course of
– LPG/Cooking fuel – used for heating, cooking, making plastics.
– Naphthasol – used as a cleansing solvent.
– Gasoline – 87 and ninety Octane grades of petrol for the transportation sector.
– Jet gasoline/Kerosene – fuel for jet engines, other aircraft and tools including home lighting.
– Automobile Diesel Oil/Fuel Oil – used in diesel engine autos and to operate generators.
– Heavy Fuel Oil – used for industrial operations corresponding to power era and marine transportation.
– Asphalt – used for road construction.
The Octane Quantity is a measure of the resistance of a fuel to detonation (“knock when burned in an internal combustion engine. The higher the Octane Quantity, the more effective the anti-knock high quality of the gasoline. A excessive share of automobiles in Jamaica require 87 Octane gas.
Petrojam’s ex-refinery pricing coverage relies on the concept of import parity. Since deregulation of the petroleum market, refined petroleum products are priced to price no more than the worth an importer would pay to buy finished merchandise overseas and land them in Jamaica.
Regional gasoline prices are listed to the current US Gulf Reference costs. To these costs are added freight and insurance, and the price for storage and dealing with.
No. Petrojam supplies approximately 54% of Jamaica’s annual 26 million barrel petroleum requirements. The bauxite corporations import roughly 35% for their operations and the remaining 11% is imported directly by the multinational advertising corporations for the transportation sector.