Grangemouth Refinery is a mature oil refinery complicated positioned on the Firth of Forth in Grangemouth, Scotland. At the moment operated by Petroineos, it is the only crude oil refinery in Scotland (and might be the one working oil refinery following the cessation of refining actions on the Dundee Refinery) and presently one in all six within the UK. It’s reputedly the UK’s second-oldest refinery, and it provides refined products to clients in Scotland, northern England and Northern Ireland, as well as sometimes additional afield.
1 Historical past 1.1 Location
1.2 Easy Refinery: 1924-1939
1.Three Petrochemical complicated: 1946-1975
1.4 North Sea Oil: 1975-2004
1.5 Put up-BP Period: 2004-current
Grangemouth Refinery commenced operation in 1924 as Scottish Oils. Its location at Grangemouth was selected as a result of adjacent Grangemouth Docks which supported the import by ship of Middle East crude oils for feedstock, plus a budget availability of giant areas of reclaimed flat land. One other essential factor was the abundant availability of expert labour in shale oil refining: the first oil works on the planet, ‘Young’s Paraffin Mild and Mineral Oil Company Limited’, had opened in 1851 at Boghead near Bathgate, to produce oil from shale or coal using the process patented in 1850 by Glasgow scientist Dr James Younger (generally known as “Paraffin” Young), for “treating bituminous coals to obtain paraffine therefrom”.
With the world’s first oil wells coming on-line in 1859 in Pennsylvania in the USA, the global price of oil dropped and plenty of Scottish shale oil works became un-economical and had to both shut or concentrate manufacturing on other supplies. By 1910 only five main Scottish shale oil firms remained, preventing to stay competitive in opposition to cheaper imported American oil. During the primary World Battle the British government helped to develop new fields in Arabia to offer low-cost oil to maintain the warfare effort. This drove prices even decrease to a degree the place the shale oil business was unable to compete, and as a result in 1919 the six surviving firms (together with Youngs) came collectively under the administration of the newly formed Scottish Oils. That same yr Scottish Oils was bought by the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, a forerunner of the British Petroleum Firm (later generally known as BP)
Easy Refinery: 1924-1939
The Refinery operated from 1924 to 1939 at a throughput of 360,000 tonnes per year. It was then pressured to shut down between 1939 and 1946 by World Warfare II and the ensuing drying up of crude feedstock imports. When operations recommenced in 1946, the refinery underwent numerous major expansion programmes.
Petrochemical advanced: 1946-1975
In the 1940s the Distiller’s Firm Ltd had been investigating artificial processes for the manufacturing of alcohol, to change the normal fermentation process utilizing molasses and so resolve issues with unreliability of provide and the related cost fluctuations. This enterprise want mixed with BP’s interest in petrochemical growth resulted in 1947 within the formation of a joint company, British Hydrocarbon Chemicals Ltd. The new firm located its site adjacent the existing BP Grangemouth Refinery, utilising obtainable feedstock from the refinery byproduct streams. This petrochemical plant was commissioned in 1951, the first in Europe.
In the 1950s the refinery was linked to the Finnart Oil Terminal at Loch Lengthy on the west coast of Scotland by a 58-mile (ninety three km) pipeline, to allow the import of crudes by way of deep-water jetty, which supported the usage of larger oil tankers. The first crude oil import from Finnart was in 1952.
Later on within the century a second line was additionally installed to allow the direct provide of completed refinery products to the Finnart terminal, primarily for export to markets in Northern Eire and the republic.
Within the 1960s, a pilot “proteins-from-oil” production facility was constructed on the refinery. It used British Petroleum’s technology for feeding n-paraffins to yeast, in order to provide single cell protein for poultry and cattle feed.
BP’s operations at Grangemouth grew over the next twenty years to meet the growing calls for for both petrochemicals and fuels.
North Sea Oil: 1975-2004
In 1975 the invention of North Sea Oil introduced the commissioning of the Kinneil Crude Oil Stabilisation terminal, which linked straight into the INEOS Forties pipeline system; this plant serves to stabilise Forties Crude oil for both export to third parties or feeding into the refinery, and allowed the processing of North Sea oil as a part of the refinery crude ‘slate’ of feedstocks.
Publish-BP Interval: 2004-present
In 2004 BP determined to divest its worldwide olefins and derivatives business: the sale included the Refinery and linked petrochemicals complicated (excluding the Kinneil terminal, which BP retains). In 2005 the brand new company created to run this enterprise was named Innovene, and later that 12 months it was purchased by Ineos, a privately owned UK-based mostly chemicals company.
In 2011 the Ineos Refining business, which included both the Grangemouth and Lavera (exterior Marseilles, France) Refineries, entered right into a 50%/50% joint enterprise with the Chinese state oil firm Petrochina, to form the PetroIneos company.
Grangemouth Refinery right now employs over 1300 people over a 700 hectare site.
Scenes from the 2013 movie World Struggle Z that includes Brad Pitt had been filmed close to the ability.[Three][four]
The Grangemouth Refinery is a serious landmark, with its numerous gas flares and cooling towers seen across a wide area of the Scottish Lowlands.
The refinery has a ‘nameplate’ capability for processing 210,000 barrels (33,000 m3) of crude oil every day. It currently employs about 1,200 everlasting staff, and a further 1,000 contractors.
It processed roughly 400,000 tonnes of imported crude oil annually till the end of the Second World Conflict, and subsequent growth programmes have increased refining capability to an excess of 10 million tonnes per year.
The INEOS-owned North Sea Forties pipeline system terminates at the Kinneil processing facility, and surplus crude is exported via pipeline to the Dalmeny tank farm, and subsequently shipped out from the Hound Level marine terminal onto oil tankers of up to 350,000 D.W.T. that are capable of navigate the shallow water of the Forth.
Annual output share
Petrol – 22%
Diesel – 24%
Kerosene & Jet gas – 13%
Gasoline oil – 8%
– Gas oil – 15%
LPG/petrochemical feedstocks – 12%
Gas gas/other – 6%
Waste – 1%
One of many refinery’s largest accidents occurred at 7am on Sunday 22 March 1987 when the HydroCracker Unit exploded. The resulting vibrations and noise might be heard up to 30 km away. The resulting fireplace burned for most of the day. One worker was killed. Just 9 days earlier on the 13 March, another incident occurred involving the refinery flare line, the ensuing fireball killed two workers.
In 2002, BP the previous owners of the plant, have been fined £1m for breaching safety legal guidelines throughout a sequence of incidents which occurred in 2000.
Ineos went to court docket in April 2008 over claims that it had polluted the River Forth in mid-2007.
Ineos industrial disputes
In 2008, Ineos proposed that plant staff begin contributing a share towards their own pensions (a final salary pension scheme), as a substitute of the present non-contributory mounted salary pensions. The request would have obliged future new entry employees to pay 6% of their wage, phased in over a six-yr period. Ninety seven% of the Unite commerce union’s 1,250 members at Grangemouth voted in favour of strike action. David Watt, of the Institute of Directors in Scotland, said that the average Grangemouth Refinery plant worker earns £40,000 per yr (nearly twice the Scottish common.) This was disputed by the Deputy Normal Secretary of the Scottish Trades Union Congress, Dave Moxham, who said that they earn £30,000 per 12 months.
The strike started on 27 April 2008, and lasted until 29 April. The petrol provide of Scotland was affected by the strike, as panic buying led some petrol stations throughout the nation to run dry. The Retail Motor Trade Federation acknowledged that there was a stock of gas that would last 70 days, easily masking the lapse in production so long as no panic buying occurred. With the shutdown of the plant, BP closed the Forties pipeline system as their Kinneil terminal relies on energy from the Grangemouth refinery. With the shutdown of Kinneil, 70 North Sea oil platforms were pressured to shut down or cut back production, at the price of seven-hundred,000 barrels per day (110,000 m3/d).[Sixteen] Shutting the pipeline down diminished Britain’s petroleum supply (the Forties pipeline provides 30% of the UK’s North Sea oil), and value the UK economic system £50 million in misplaced production daily it remained closed.
There was further industrial action in 2013. Ineos stated that the plant was making losses, and offered a survival plan requiring workers to simply accept worse employment phrases, notably on pensions, which the staff rejected. Ineos acknowledged in October 2013 that the petrochemical works would shut. Following negotiations led by Scottish Finance Secretary John Swinney and Scottish Secretary Alistair Carmichael, on 24 October the unions accepted a survival plan put ahead from the administration of the plant. On 25 October 2013, it was introduced the plant will stay open and Unite had agreed to taking no strike motion for 3 years, transferring to a brand new pension scheme and accepting a 3-12 months pay freeze.
2009 Jaipur fire
Esso Refinery, Milford Haven
2005 Hertfordshire Oil Storage Terminal hearth
^ Bamberg, J. H. (2000). British Petroleum and international oil, 1950-1975: the problem of nationalism. Quantity three of British Petroleum and International Oil 1950-1975: The Challenge of Nationalism, J. H. Bamberg British Petroleum series. Cambridge College Press. pp. 426-428. ISBN zero-521-78515-4.
^ http://www.film-areas.com/motion pictures/w/World-Battle-Z.html#.VGZm8MmhpCs
^ UKPIA – Overview of Grangemouth Facility Archived 2008-04-25 at the Wayback Machine.
^ http://www.hse.gov.uk/comah/sragtech/casebpgrang87b.htm The Hydrocracker Explosion and Fire at BP Oil, Grangemouth Refinery. 22 March 1987
^ “BP fined £1m for security offences”. BBC News. 18 January 2002. Retrieved four Might 2010.
^ “Courtroom action for refinery bosses”. BBC Information. 22 April 2008. Retrieved four Might 2010.
^ a b “Workers left with no various”. BBC Information. 23 April 2008. Retrieved 4 Could 2010.
^ “‘Be practical’ call to petrol staff”. BBC Information. 22 April 2008. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
^ “Deal could end refinery dispute”. BBC News. 29 April 2008. Retrieved four Could 2010.
^ “The petrol image in Scotland”. BBC Information. 25 April 2008. Retrieved four May 2010.
^ “Q&A: The Grangemouth dispute”. BBC News. 28 April 2008. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
^ a b “Opec warns oil may reach $200”. BBC News. 28 April 2008. Retrieved four Might 2010.
^ “‘Weeks’ to re-start strike plant”. BBC News. 26 April 2008. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
^ Anthony Clark (17 October 2013). “Unite accuses Ineos of ‘fancy accounting’ over Grangemouth”. Plastics & Rubber Weekly. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
^ Douglas Fraser (18 October 2013). “Shedding mild on Grangemouth”. BBC. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
^ “Grangemouth dispute: Ineos says petrochemical plant will close”. BBC News. 23 October 2013. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
^ “Grangemouth plant shutdown leaves government combating to avoid wasting 800 jobs”. The Guardian. 23 October 2013. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
^ “Grangemouth dispute: Hopes rise after Unite accepts survival plan”. BBC News. 24 October 2013. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
^ “Grangemouth dispute: Ineos says plant will stay open”. BBC Information. 25 October 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013.