Grangemouth Refinery is a mature oil refinery advanced located on the Firth of Forth in Grangemouth, Scotland. Currently operated by Petroineos, it’s the only crude oil refinery in Scotland (and will probably be the only working oil refinery following the cessation of refining activities at the Dundee Refinery) and currently one of six in the UK. It is reputedly the UK’s second-oldest refinery, and it provides refined merchandise to customers in Scotland, northern England and Northern Eire, as well as often further afield.
1 History 1.1 Location
1.2 Simple Refinery: 1924-1939
1.Three Petrochemical complicated: 1946-1975
1.4 North Sea Oil: 1975-2004
1.5 Submit-BP Interval: 2004-present
Grangemouth Refinery commenced operation in 1924 as Scottish Oils. Its location at Grangemouth was chosen as a result of adjoining Grangemouth Docks which supported the import by ship of Center East crude oils for feedstock, plus the cheap availability of giant areas of reclaimed flat land. Another necessary factor was the considerable availability of skilled labour in shale oil refining: the primary oil works on the earth, ‘Young’s Paraffin Gentle and Mineral Oil Firm Limited’, had opened in 1851 at Boghead close to Bathgate, to provide oil from shale or coal using the method patented in 1850 by Glasgow scientist Dr James Young (known as “Paraffin” Younger), for “treating bituminous coals to acquire paraffine therefrom”.
With the world’s first oil wells coming on-line in 1859 in Pennsylvania in the USA, the worldwide worth of oil dropped and many Scottish shale oil works became un-economical and needed to both close or focus manufacturing on different supplies. By 1910 solely 5 major Scottish shale oil companies remained, combating to remain aggressive in opposition to cheaper imported American oil. Throughout the first World Struggle the British government helped to develop new fields in Arabia to provide low-cost oil to sustain the warfare effort. This drove prices even decrease to a point the place the shale oil trade was unable to compete, and as a end in 1919 the six surviving firms (together with Youngs) came together underneath the administration of the newly formed Scottish Oils. That same 12 months Scottish Oils was bought by the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, a forerunner of the British Petroleum Firm (later often known as BP)
Easy Refinery: 1924-1939
The Refinery operated from 1924 to 1939 at a throughput of 360,000 tonnes per yr. It was then forced to shut down between 1939 and 1946 by World Struggle II and the resulting drying up of crude feedstock imports. When operations recommenced in 1946, the refinery underwent various main expansion programmes.
Petrochemical complicated: 1946-1975
Within the 1940s the Distiller’s Company Ltd were investigating artificial processes for the manufacturing of alcohol, to exchange the traditional fermentation course of using molasses and so resolve points with unreliability of provide and the related cost fluctuations. This enterprise want mixed with BP’s curiosity in petrochemical development resulted in 1947 in the formation of a joint firm, British Hydrocarbon Chemicals Ltd. The brand new firm situated its site adjoining the prevailing BP Grangemouth Refinery, utilising accessible feedstock from the refinery byproduct streams. This petrochemical plant was commissioned in 1951, the first in Europe.
In the 1950s the refinery was connected to the Finnart Oil Terminal at Loch Lengthy on the west coast of Scotland by a 58-mile (ninety three km) pipeline, to allow the import of crudes through deep-water jetty, which supported using bigger oil tankers. The primary crude oil import from Finnart was in 1952.
Later on in the century a second line was additionally installed to allow the direct supply of finished refinery merchandise to the Finnart terminal, primarily for export to markets in Northern Eire and the republic.
In the 1960s, a pilot “proteins-from-oil” manufacturing facility was built on the refinery. It used British Petroleum’s technology for feeding n-paraffins to yeast, so as to produce single cell protein for poultry and cattle feed.
BP’s operations at Grangemouth grew over the next twenty years to meet the rising calls for for both petrochemicals and fuels.
North Sea Oil: 1975-2004
In 1975 the discovery of North Sea Oil brought the commissioning of the Kinneil Crude Oil Stabilisation terminal, which related instantly into the INEOS Forties pipeline system; this plant serves to stabilise Forties Crude oil for both export to third events or feeding into the refinery, and allowed the processing of North Sea oil as a part of the refinery crude ‘slate’ of feedstocks.
Publish-BP Period: 2004-current
In 2004 BP decided to divest its worldwide olefins and derivatives enterprise: the sale included the Refinery and connected petrochemicals complicated (excluding the Kinneil terminal, which BP retains). In 2005 the brand new firm created to run this enterprise was named Innovene, and later that 12 months it was purchased by Ineos, a privately owned UK-based mostly chemicals firm.
In 2011 the Ineos Refining business, which included both the Grangemouth and Lavera (outdoors Marseilles, France) Refineries, entered right into a 50%/50% joint venture with the Chinese language state oil company Petrochina, to form the PetroIneos firm.
Grangemouth Refinery immediately employs over 1300 individuals over a 700 hectare site.
Scenes from the 2013 movie World Conflict Z that includes Brad Pitt have been filmed close to the facility.[Three][four]
The Grangemouth Refinery is a significant landmark, with its quite a few gas flares and cooling towers seen across a large space of the Scottish Lowlands.
The refinery has a ‘nameplate’ capability for processing 210,000 barrels (33,000 m3) of crude oil each day. It at the moment employs about 1,200 permanent employees, and an additional 1,000 contractors.
It processed roughly four hundred,000 tonnes of imported crude oil annually until the tip of the Second World War, and subsequent growth programmes have elevated refining capability to an excess of 10 million tonnes per year.
The INEOS-owned North Sea Forties pipeline system terminates at the Kinneil processing facility, and surplus crude is exported by way of pipeline to the Dalmeny tank farm, and subsequently shipped out from the Hound Point marine terminal onto oil tankers of up to 350,000 D.W.T. which are able to navigate the shallow water of the Forth.
Annual output share
Petrol – 22%
Diesel – 24%
Kerosene & Jet fuel – thirteen%
Gasoline oil – 8%
– Gas oil – 15%
LPG/petrochemical feedstocks – 12%
Fuel gas/other – 6%
Waste – 1%
One of many refinery’s greatest accidents occurred at 7am on Sunday 22 March 1987 when the HydroCracker Unit exploded. The resulting vibrations and noise might be heard as much as 30 km away. The resulting hearth burned for most of the day. One worker was killed. Simply 9 days earlier on the thirteen March, another incident occurred involving the refinery flare line, the resulting fireball killed two staff.[Eight]
In 2002, BP the previous house owners of the plant, have been fined £1m for breaching safety laws during a collection of incidents which occurred in 2000.
Ineos went to courtroom in April 2008 over claims that it had polluted the River Forth in mid-2007.
Ineos industrial disputes
In 2008, Ineos proposed that plant employees begin contributing a share in direction of their own pensions (a last salary pension scheme), as a substitute of the prevailing non-contributory fixed salary pensions. The request would have obliged future new entry workers to pay 6% of their wage, phased in over a six-12 months interval. 97% of the Unite trade union’s 1,250 members at Grangemouth voted in favour of strike action. David Watt, of the Institute of Directors in Scotland, said that the average Grangemouth Refinery plant worker earns £40,000 per yr (nearly twice the Scottish average.) This was disputed by the Deputy Common Secretary of the Scottish Trades Union Congress, Dave Moxham, who said that they earn £30,000 per yr.[Eleven]
The strike started on 27 April 2008, and lasted till 29 April.[Thirteen] The petrol supply of Scotland was affected by the strike, as panic buying led some petrol stations across the country to run dry. The Retail Motor Industry Federation stated that there was a stock of gasoline that would last 70 days, simply masking the lapse in manufacturing so long as no panic shopping for occurred. With the shutdown of the plant, BP closed the Forties pipeline system as their Kinneil terminal relies on energy from the Grangemouth refinery.[Sixteen] With the shutdown of Kinneil, 70 North Sea oil platforms had been pressured to shut down or reduce production, at the price of 700,000 barrels per day (one hundred ten,000 m3/d). Shutting the pipeline down decreased Britain’s petroleum provide (the Forties pipeline provides 30% of the UK’s North Sea oil), and value the UK financial system £50 million in lost manufacturing day by day it remained closed.
There was additional industrial action in 2013. Ineos stated that the plant was making losses, and supplied a survival plan requiring staff to accept worse employment phrases, notably on pensions, which the staff rejected. Ineos acknowledged in October 2013 that the petrochemical works would close. Following negotiations led by Scottish Finance Secretary John Swinney and Scottish Secretary Alistair Carmichael, on 24 October the unions accepted a survival plan put forward from the administration of the plant. On 25 October 2013, it was announced the plant will stay open and Unite had agreed to taking no strike action for 3 years, transferring to a brand new pension scheme and accepting a three-yr pay freeze.
2009 Jaipur fireplace
Esso Refinery, Milford Haven
2005 Hertfordshire Oil Storage Terminal fire
^ Bamberg, J. H. (2000). British Petroleum and international oil, 1950-1975: the challenge of nationalism. Volume three of British Petroleum and International Oil 1950-1975: The Challenge of Nationalism, J. H. Bamberg British Petroleum sequence. Cambridge College Press. pp. 426-428. ISBN zero-521-78515-4.
^ UKPIA – Overview of Grangemouth Facility Archived 2008-04-25 on the Wayback Machine.
^ http://www.hse.gov.uk/comah/sragtech/casebpgrang87b.htm The Hydrocracker Explosion and Fire at BP Oil, Grangemouth Refinery. 22 March 1987
^ “BP fined £1m for security offences”. BBC News. 18 January 2002. Retrieved 4 Could 2010.
^ “Courtroom motion for refinery bosses”. BBC Information. 22 April 2008. Retrieved four May 2010.
^ a b “Employees left with no alternative”. BBC News. 23 April 2008. Retrieved 4 Could 2010.
^ “‘Be realistic’ call to petrol employees”. BBC Information. 22 April 2008. Retrieved four Might 2010.
^ “Deal may end refinery dispute”. BBC News. 29 April 2008. Retrieved four Might 2010.
^ “The petrol image in Scotland”. BBC Information. 25 April 2008. Retrieved 4 Might 2010.
^ “Q&A: The Grangemouth dispute”. BBC News. 28 April 2008. Retrieved four Could 2010.
^ a b “Opec warns oil could attain $200”. BBC Information. 28 April 2008. Retrieved 4 Might 2010.
^ “‘Weeks’ to re-start strike plant”. BBC News. 26 April 2008. Retrieved 4 Might 2010.
^ Anthony Clark (17 October 2013). “Unite accuses Ineos of ‘fancy accounting’ over Grangemouth”. Plastics & Rubber Weekly. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
^ Douglas Fraser (18 October 2013). “Shedding gentle on Grangemouth”. BBC. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
^ “Grangemouth dispute: Ineos says petrochemical plant will shut”. BBC Information. 23 October 2013. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
^ “Grangemouth plant shutdown leaves authorities preventing to save 800 jobs”. The Guardian. 23 October 2013. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
^ “Grangemouth dispute: Hopes rise after Unite accepts survival plan”. BBC News. 24 October 2013. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
^ “Grangemouth dispute: Ineos says plant will keep open”. BBC Information. 25 October 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013.