Hydroskimming – The Refinery Process

Crude Oil for processing by Petrojam is purchased beneath the San Jose Accord from Venezuela and Mexico and the Caracas Settlement with Venezuela. In addition, some crude oil is bought from third occasion suppliers, as the refinery diversifies sources to make the most of decrease value crude.

The refinery in Kingston Jamaica operates as a hydroskimming kind plant. A hydroskimming refinery is outfitted with a major Atmospheric Distillation unit, a naphtha reforming unit and essential treating processes for other products going to storage. Marathon This refinery was designed to function with a excessive level of heat integration between process streams and with excessive temperature streams providing heat to process at lower temperatures. All merchandise are line blended into completed product tankage.

Figure 1: Petrojam Refinery Configuration – Block Diagram

Crude oil is initially handled in a desalter unit the place excess salts, mud and water are removed. It is then processed through a single-stage atmospheric pipe-still or APS (fractional distillation column). Fractional distillation makes use of the difference in boiling point to separate the hydrocarbons in crude oil into totally different cuts/streams. The APS produces an overhead naphtha minimize, kerosene and gasoline oil sidestream cuts and a bottoms stream at 650 degrees F (See Determine 1). Variations in the draw-off temperature used for the sidestream cut produces kerosene or aviation gasoline and auto diesel or marine diesel in blocked operations.

The naphta lower is de-ethanized, debutanized and split with light, center and heavy virgin naphthas to mix motor gasoline. A portion of the heavy virgin naphtha (HVN) can also be blended to center distillates and heavy fuel oil (HFO). The center virgin naphtha is fed to the reforming unit the place it undergoes a process by which low octane number straight-run naphtha is upgraded to a better-octane motor gasoline mixing grade by catalytically selling specific teams of chemical reactions. The reformer is a semi-regenerative kind catalyst system. The grades of gasoline made by the refinery include both 87 and 90 Octane Index.

Light end fractionalization splits into propane and butane which is used as liquefied petroleum gases, (LPG) or blended within the gasoline pool (butane). The kerosene sidestream is hydrofined to ensure suphur and nitrogen targets are met and then run down to tankage as twin purpose kero/turbo gas. Auto diesel oil is produced by mixing a part, or all the kerosene sidestream to the fuel oil stream. It is also hydrofined (handled with hydrogen over a catalyst to cut back sulphur and nitrogen content) to satisfy sulphur specifications after which despatched to storage. Every so often nevertheless, it could even be run down on to tankage as Marine fuel oil (MGO), which is a heavier minimize gas oil from the atmospheric distillation unit.

Atmospheric Pipestill backside is blended with gasoline oil, kero and/or heavy virgin naphtha to supply Bunker C gasoline oil, utility grade gasoline oil and IFO 380. A portion of the atmospheric pipestill bottoms steam can be despatched to the vacuum Pipestill to produce two grades of penetration asphalt.

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