The availability and demand for crude oil and petroleum merchandise are key factor in determining the standing of the world financial system. On account of the increase in demand of crude oil in southeast Asia, there was a rise in the price of crude oil in 2008. Nevertheless, because the world economic system began to undergo a disaster within the latter half of 2008, demand has started to decelerate, and provide has surpassed demand. Since the increase in demand is due to extend in demand for petroleum products, the economics of the petroleum refining trade will endure tremendous change. Basically, refining is considerably less worthwhile than other petroleum industry segments. This chapter examines international refining capacity. It discusses components affecting the refinery economics, reminiscent of costs, merchandise costs, refinery complexity and on-stream components. The capital investment for a new refinery is dependent upon its throughput, complexity and site. Added to the capital value is the prolonged time needed for the preliminary study, obtaining the mandatory permits (environmental and in any other case), designing constructing and commissioning. The capital cost includes the price of the process items, utilities, security and environmental services, storage and dealing with services, civil work, buildings and infrastructure. Moreover, the long run outlook of the refining trade will depend on the demand for transportation fuel and the global provide of crude oil. It has develop into clear in recent times that the spare capability for crude oil production is shrinking and that the increasing worth of crude oil is driving the prices of fuels to an all time excessive.