The inter-relation between Fuel and Fire is nearly like the parable of the Hen and the Egg. If there was no Gasoline, how can fire burn, but when there was no fire then how can the gasoline alight. Right here too the controversy could be limitless except for the uncontested indisputable fact that it is solely by mastering the use of fireplace that man began his walk in the direction of civilization. Manufacturing exercise albeit on a tiny localized scale started quickly thereafter as the prehistoric precursor of Industrialization. First man started to bake his earthenware like pottery and later bricks to extend their lifespan. Simultaneously, he taught himself to weave and subsequently dye fabrics. Later he realized to smelt numerous metals from ores resulting in the assorted steel-ages, culminating with the Iron-age; the gateway to fashionable civilisation.
Progress vs Ecology
The evolution of human civilization and its rising economies was wholly and repeatedly dependent on fireplace and thereby gasoline. Within the early epochs it was firewood, till man discovered and started mining coal. And together with this progress began a chain of interrelated causes and results that have modified little during the last 2000 years. Mankind’s progress depends on low cost sources of vitality or gasoline, but burning of all fuels causes both direct or indirect ecological damage, to not say depletion of vitality sources.
The Chinese language learned to make forged iron and steel almost 2000 years back and their early ironworks used copious quantities of charcoal causing the first systematic large scale deforestation in recorded history. The scenario was repeated in 17th century England with the advent of the modern industrialization when the country’s forest cover was rampantly depleted, again for making charcoal for steel foundries. This came to an finish with the invention of the coking process, where bituminous coal was devolatilized and sulfur ranges reduced to make it appropriate for use in Metallurgy. Nevertheless, the harm performed; England never recovered her forest cowl.
The put up industrialization utilization of coal worldwide took a large toll on the environmental with tens of millions of tons of CO2 and particulate matter consisting of soot and ash spewing into the environment 12 months after yr inflicting antagonistic climatic results like smog and acid rains, affecting the health of thousands and thousands causing respiratory diseases like asthma, tuberculosis and lung most cancers. Mining of coal in the meantime destroyed countryside’s and poisoned numerous rivers, streams and floor water reservoirs.
The advent of the Petroleum age within the nineteenth century and its widespread proliferation within the 20th century did little to ease the opposed results of coal and firewood. The previous remained the gasoline of choice of the thermal energy era business, while the exploding inhabitants of impoverished nations and the chilly northern international locations continued depleting forests for firewood for cooking and heating.
The Indian Scenario
India’s industrialization only began in the late colonial period and truly took off only after independence. Similar to in other countries, it was again coal which was the popular source or quite the only available source of energy for feeding the industry. Nevertheless, with the rise of her petroleum refining capabilities very quickly there was accessible a brand new cheap fuel: HFO (Heavy Gas Oil) or Furnace Oil (F.O.) as it is commonly identified. A dark, thick and very viscous oil resembling bitumen, comprising of the residual waste from the refining process, which wants pre-heating to make it free flowing for pumping, filtration and burning. Nonetheless, it was low cost, simply obtainable and virtually at par with diesel when it comes to energy yield and very soon it became the fuel of alternative for burning in industrial furnaces and boilers for decades.
The reign of F.O. as the Industry’s favourite fuel briefly came to an finish within the 2006-12 interval. Being one of the first petroleum products to be de-controlled, the Indian oil corporations began jacking up its price during this period in tandem with the worldwide prices of crude oil and bunker gas. And very quickly the worth of F.O. turned at par with Diesel and for a short second even exceeded it, thereby causing a mass exodus of customers in the direction of different fuels.
Certainly one of the biggest shoppers of Furnace Oil, the Iron and Steel sector shifted en masse to coal, using it either in a Pulverized type (PCC) or by putting in coal gasifiers to make producer fuel. The Sugar mills too put in gasifiers to make Bio-mass gasoline from their waste bagasse. Industries having the locational advantage and entry to the Natural fuel distribution network, started using pure gas, others shifted to biomass fuels like briquettes or rice husk.
The online result of this unjustified and opportunistic spiking of Furnace Oil prices, was that India now has to exports half of its F.O. manufacturing at low costs, as domestic consumption is barely half of the manufacturing. In 2013-14, India produced 12,953 thousand MT of FO and consumed solely 6,236 thousand MT. ( source – Petroleum Evaluation Cell, Ministry of Petroleum).
Return of the King
Fast-ahead to late 2015. The worldwide oil costs, which have been on a downward spiral since the middle of the year, backside out towards the tip. The Indian Petroleum trade in an uncharacteristic prudent move progressively halves the price of Furnace Oil to about Rs20 a Litre, back to early 2000s ranges. The popular excuse given is that of worldwide oil costs, although the extra pragmatic truth factors towards huge domestic stockpiles and low international bunker gas rates.
So once again F.O. is slowly becomes the popular industrial gasoline with most of its previous users returning back to utilizing it for its low prices, but with the down side of again subjecting themselves to all its shortcomings and related problems. Though its resurgence is an undeniable boon for all, but what shouldn’t be forgotten it that remains to be a pretty soiled fossil gas both when it comes to storage and handling in addition to combustion and emissions, particularly when one is compelled to contemplate the abysmally poor city air quality and pollution ranges in the country.
The Magic of Water in Gas
It is in situations akin to prevalent within the country right this moment when FO-Emulsification can prove itself to be the necessity of the hour as it may possibly present invaluable help to each the gasoline customers as well as the atmosphere.
FO-water emulsification is a globally confirmed expertise for processing and enhancing residual oil fuels like F.O., whereby the resultant gasoline offers better combustion, improved economy and cleaner emissions. The means of emulsification entails mixing two immiscible liquids like oil and water, whereby one is reduced into microscopic droplets and blended within the opposite in such a way that they by no means separate.
As soon as emulsified, even poor burning fuels like heavy residual oils and refinery residue can combust easily and cleanly with vital reduction of smoke and pollutants like NOx (Nitrogen Oxides), PM (Particulate Mater) and CO (Carbon Monoxide) in stack emissions. In purposes like Boilers and Furnaces, water-in-oil Emulsions not solely effect full combustion but in addition permit for extraordinarily low excess-air ranges, which instantly corresponds to reduction of waste heat and better vitality utilizations.
Apart kind the various manufacturing industries, usage of Emulsified HFO also can assist bring back online a most of the Combined Cycle Gas Turbine based mostly Power plants, which at this time are right this moment either shut-down or working intermittently due to lack of natural gas. With a bit or no modification, GE’s B & E class and many Siemen’s turbines collection can simply run on HFO. Converting these turbines to fireplace Emulsified HFO would take care of most of the issues related to usage of heavy oils in Gas Turbines like soot formation and at the same time remove the need of importing costly fuels like LNG as F.O.