Characteristic Article: Understanding The Production, Transport, And Refining Of Crude Oil In Canada

Description: The above column chart shows Canadian crude oil provide and disposition for 2010 to 2015. During this time frame, Canadian crude oil: – manufacturing increased persistently from 2.83 MMb/d to three.91 MMb/d
– imports decreased from zero.82 MMb/d to zero.Sixty four MMb/d in 2014, but rebounded to 0.74 MMb/d in 2015
– exports by pipeline increased persistently from 1.Eighty two MMb/d to 2.Seventy nine Mb/d
– exports by rail increased from almost nothing to zero.163 MMb/d in 2014, however dipped to zero.11 MMb/d in 2015
– exports by ship have been relatively flat at zero.14 MMb/d
– refinery runs fluctuated round 1.67 MMb/d, with 2015 displaying a rise for the first time since 2012

Interactive Turbulent Tubular ReactorOver ninety five% of Canada’s three.9 MMb/d of crude oil production in 2015 was pulled from western Canadian reservoirs, largely in northern Alberta. A group of provincially regulated pipelines moves that crude oil from northern Alberta to the key pipeline and refinery hubs in Edmonton and Hardisty. These pipeline hubs are additionally pricing factors for benchmark grades of crude oil.

At the Edmonton hub, Alberta’s mild crude oil is mixed in storage terminals and traded using the “mixed sweet(MSW) worth reference. At Hardisty, heavy Alberta oil is delivered to the Enbridge Mainline, Keystone Pipeline, or rail loading services, the place a number of producers co-mingle and market their product, after which commerce it utilizing the Western Canadian Choose (WCS) worth reference.

Edmonton refineries supply most of the gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel utilized in Alberta, and additionally they supplement the provision of refined merchandise in Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and B.C. Most of the refined merchandise produced in Edmonton are transported on the Alberta Products Pipeline, Enbridge Mainline, or Trans Mountain Pipeline to marketing terminals throughout western Canada, after which additional distribution is often performed by truck and rail.

Description: The above map shows oil transportation methods in western Canada, including railroads and main pipelines (each NEB regulated and provincially regulated). The map additionally exhibits the location of refineries and upgraders within the region. The Edmonton and Hardisty hubs are key points on the map, as several pipelines bring oil from northern Alberta to these hubs, after which a number of other (sometimes larger) pipelines ship this oil to different provinces and the U.S. There are eight refineries in western Canada, with most of the capability in Edmonton, Regina or Vancouver. Two of these refineries primarily produce ashphalt from heavy oil. The Moosejaw refinery additionally performs heavy oil upgrading, along with the six upgraders in Fort McMurray or Llyodminster.

In 2015, 2.Eight MMb/d of western Canadian crude oil was exported on six NEB-regulated export pipelines (Enbridge Mainline, Keystone, Trans Mountain, Express, Milk River, and Aurora). Additionally, about 111 Mb/d was exported from western Canada to the US via rail and 143 Mb/d of japanese Canadian offshore manufacturing was exported by sea. The majority of exports to the U.S. are to the Midwest, while exports to the Gulf Coast have grown probably the most quickly in recent times. Both areas possess vital refining capacity appropriate for heavy Canadian crude.

Approximately 400 Mb/d of western Canadian crude oil was shipped to refineries in Ontario, Quebec, and New Brunswick, totally on the Enbridge system (the Mainline and Line 9), with approximately forty five Mb/d transferring by rail. The refineries in Ontario now run largely western Canadian crude, whereas refineries east of Ontario are increasingly working crude oil from both western Canada and the U.S. Almost all of Canada’s oil imports are destined for eastern Canadian refineries.

Click to enlarge

Sources: NEB, CAPP, company web sites

Description: The above map reveals oil transportation systems in Ontario and Eastern Canada, together with railroads and main pipelines (both NEB regulated and provincially regulated). The map additionally shows the situation of refineries in the region. Montreal is a central level on this map, as it is where the entire operational oil pipelines both terminate (Line 9, Portland-Montreal, St. Laurence) or start (Trans-Northern). The CP Railroad additionally terminates in Montreal, whereas CN’s railroads stretch into northern Quebec and the Maritimes. The map also shows the route of the proposed Power East pipeline, which would connect to the three largest refineries in jap Canada (Suncor, Valero, and Irving).

The refineries in southern Ontario supply many of the refined petroleum merchandise needed in that area. The big refineries in Saint John, Quebec Metropolis, and Montreal produce extra refined merchandise than are wanted in the area. Two pipelines (Trans Northern and St. Laurence) move surplus refined products within Quebec and between Quebec and Ontario, while many of the motion of surplus refined products from the Maritimes is by ship.


The NEB not too long ago posted Excel recordsdata with historical knowledge on Estimated Production of Canadian Crude Oil and Equivalent and Weekly Crude Runs. Oil export knowledge may be accessed via the NEB’s commodity tracking system and oil import information is sourced from Statistics Canada’s Canadian Worldwide Merchandise Commerce Database.

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