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Letter C

CALIFORNIA ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT – The state regulation initially enacted in 1970, expresses the state’s concern over California’s threatened wildlife, outlined rare and endangered wildlife, and gave authority to the Department of Fish and Game to “establish, conserve, protect, restore, and enhance any endangered species or any threatened species and its habitat in California….” The statute is below the state Fish and Sport Code as Chapter 1.5.

CALIFORNIA Power Commission – The state company established by the Warren-Alquist State Energy Resources Conservation and Improvement Act in 1974 (Public Resources Code, Sections 25000 et seq.) chargeable for power coverage. The Energy Fee’s 5 main areas of responsibilities are:

1. Forecasting future statewide vitality wants
2. Licensing energy plants sufficient to meet those needs
three. Selling vitality conservation and efficiency measures
four. Growing renewable and alternative power assets, together with providing help to develop clean transportation fuels
5. Planning for and directing state response to energy emergencies

Funding for the Commission’s activities comes from the Power Assets Program Account, Federal Petroleum Violation Escrow Account and other sources.

CALIFORNIA ENVIRONMENTAL High quality ACT (CEQA – pronounced See’ quah) Enacted in 1970 and amended by 1983, established state policy to maintain a excessive-quality atmosphere in California and arrange laws to inhibit degradation of the surroundings.

CALIFORNIA PUBLIC UTILITIES Commission (CPUC) – A state company created by constitutional amendment in 1911 to regulate the rates and services of more than 1,500 privately owned utilities and 20,000 transportation companies. The CPUC is an administrative agency that exercises each legislative and judicial powers; its choices and orders may be appealed solely to the California Supreme Courtroom. The foremost duties of the CPUC are to regulate privately owned utilities, securing sufficient service to the general public at charges which can be simply and cheap both to prospects and shareholders of the utilities; including rates, electricity transmission strains and pure fuel pipelines. The CPUC also gives electricity and natural gasoline forecasting, and analysis and planning of vitality supply and assets. Its principal headquarters are in San Francisco.

CALIFORNIA UTILITY Research COUNCIL (CURC) – Public Utilities Code, Sections 9201-9203 requires the California Energy Commission, the California Public Utilities Fee, and the investor-owned utilities (Pacific Gas and Electric Firm, Southern California Edition, and San Diego Gasoline & Electric) to coordinate and promote consistency of analysis, improvement and demonstration (RD&D) programs with state vitality coverage. The CURC offers coordination for and sharing of knowledge on vitality RD&D in California to keep away from duplication of efforts.

Call-Back – A provision included in some power sale contracts that lets the supplier cease delivery when the power is required to satisfy certain different obligations.

CALORIE (energy calorie – small “c” – versus food Calorie – capital “C”) Any of a number of approximately equal values of heat, each measured as the amount of heat require to lift the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 diploma Celsius from a regular initial temperature, esp. from three.98 degrees Celsius. 14.5 levels Celsius, or 19.5 levels Celsius, at 1 ambiance strain. A calorie is the unit of heat equal to 4.184 joules.

CAP AND Commerce – Cap and Trade is a market-based coverage instrument for protecting human health and the surroundings. A cap and trade program first sets an aggressive cap, or maximum restrict, on emissions. Sources covered by the program then receive authorizations to emit within the form of emissions allowances, with the entire quantity of allowances restricted by the cap. Every source can design its personal compliance technique to fulfill the general discount requirement, including sale or purchase of allowances, set up of pollution controls, implementation of efficiency measures, among different choices. Particular person control requirements usually are not specified underneath a cap and commerce program, but every emissions source should surrender allowances equal to its precise emissions in order to comply. Sources should additionally completely and precisely measure and report all emissions in a timely method to guarantee that the overall cap is achieved. (EPA)

Capability – The amount of electric energy for which a generating unit, producing station, or other electrical apparatus is rated both by the person or producer. The time period can be used for the total quantity of pure fuel that can move via a pipeline over a given amount of time, contemplating such factors as compression and pipeline measurement.

There are numerous kinds of electricity capacity.:

Reliable Capacity: The programs’s means to carry the electric energy for the time interval and period specific, when related to the traits of the load to be supplied. Dependable capacity is determined by such elements as capability, operating energy issue, weather, and portion of the load the station is to produce.
Put in (or Nameplate) Capability: The whole producer-rated capacities of gear such as turbines, generators, condensers, transformers, and different system parts.
Peaking Capability: The capacity of producing tools supposed for operation in the course of the hours of highest day by day, weekly or seasonal masses.
Purchased Capacity: The amount of power and capability accessible for buy from outdoors the system
Reserve Capability: Further generating capacity available to meet peak or abnormally excessive demands for energy and to generate energy during scheduled or unscheduled outages. Items available for service, however not maintained at working temperature, are termed “chilly.” those units prepared and out there for service, though not in actual operation, are termed “scorching.”

Capability Issue – A percentage that tells how a lot of a energy plant’s capacity is used over time. For instance, typical plant capacity components range as high as eighty % for geothermal and 70 percent for co-generation.

Capability Release – A secondary marketplace for capacity that’s contracted by a buyer which isn’t using all of its capacity.

CAPTIVE Buyer – A buyer who doesn’t have real looking alternatives to buying power from the local utility, even if that customer had the legal proper to buy from opponents.

CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) – A colorless, odorless, non-poisonous gasoline that is a normal a part of the air. Carbon dioxide is exhaled by people and animals and is absorbed by green rising issues and by the sea. CO2 is the greenhouse gasoline whose concentration is being most affected instantly by human activities. CO2 also serves because the reference to check all other greenhouse gases (see carbon dioxide equivalent). The key source of CO2 emissions is fossil fuel combustion. CO2 emissions are additionally a product of forest clearing, biomass burning, and non-vitality production processes equivalent to cement manufacturing. Atmospheric concentrations of CO2 have been rising at a fee of about 0.5% per yr and are actually about 30% above preindustrial levels. (EPA)

CARBON DIOXIDE Equivalent (CDE). A metric measure used to match the emissions from numerous greenhouse gases primarily based upon their world warming potential (GWP). Carbon dioxide equivalents are generally expressed as “million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (MMTCDE)” or “million brief tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (MSTCDE)” The carbon dioxide equivalent for a fuel is derived by multiplying the tons of the gasoline by the associated GWP. MMTCDE= (million metric tons of a fuel) * (GWP of the fuel) For example, the GWP for methane is 24.5. Which means emissions of a million metric tons of methane is equivalent to emissions of 24.5 million metric tons of carbon dioxide. Carbon might even be used as the reference and different greenhouse gases may be converted to carbon equivalents. To transform carbon to carbon dioxide, multiply the carbon by 44/12 (the ratio of the molecular weight of carbon dioxide to carbon). (EPA)

CARBON MONOXIDE (CO) – A colorless, odorless, extremely poisonous gas made up of carbon and oxygen molecules formed by the incomplete combustion of carbon or carbonaceous material, together with gasoline. It’s a serious air pollutant on the premise of weight.

CARBON SEQUESTRATION – The uptake and storage of carbon. Bushes and plants, for example, absorb carbon dioxide, launch the oxygen and store the carbon. Fossil fuels have been at one time biomass and proceed to store the carbon till burned. (EPA)

CARCINOGENS – Potential most cancers-causing brokers within the environment. They include amongst others: industrial chemical compounds found in meals additives, pesticides and fertilizers, medication, toy, household cleaners, toiletries and paints. Naturally occurring ultraviolet solar radiation is also a carcinogen.

CATALYTIC CRACKING – A refinery process that converts a high-boiling range fraction of petroleum (fuel oil) to gasoline, olefin feed for alkylation, distillate, gas oil and gasoline gasoline by use of a catalyst and heat.

CAULKING – Materials used to make an air-tight seal by filling in cracks, equivalent to those round home windows and doorways.

CCR – California Code of Laws.

CELSIUS – A temperature scale primarily based on the freezing (0 levels) and boiling (a hundred levels) points of water. Abbreviated as C in second and subsequent references in text. Previously often called Centigrade. To transform Celsius to Fahrenheit, multiply the quantity by 9, divide by 5, and add 32. For example:

– 10 levels Celsius x 9 = 90; Ninety / 5 = 18; 18 + 32 = 50 levels Fahrenheit.

CERTIFICATION – course of by which a motorized vehicle, motorcar engine, or motorized vehicle pollution control gadget satisfies the standards adopted by the California Air Resources Board (ARB) for the management of specified air contaminants from vehicular sources (Health & Security Code, Section 39018). Certification constitutes a assure by the manufacturer that the engine will meet certain standards at 50,000 miles; if not, it should be changed or repaired without change.

CFCs (CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS or CHLORINATED FLUOROCARBONS) – A household of artificially produced chemicals receiving much consideration for their role in stratospheric ozone depletion. On a per molecule basis, these chemicals are several thousand times simpler as greenhouse gases than carbon dioxide. Since they have been launched within the mid-thirties, CFCs have been used as refrigerants, solvents and within the production of foam materials. The 1987 Montreal protocol on CFCs seeks to cut back their manufacturing by one-half by the yr 1998.

CFM (cubic ft per minute) – A measure of circulate fee.

CHEMICAL Energy – The vitality generated when a chemical compound combusts, decomposes, or transforms to produce new compounds.

CHILLER – A system that cools water, often to between forty and 50 levels Fahrenheit for eventual use in cooling air.

CIRCUIT – One full run of a set of electric conductors from a power supply to varied electrical gadgets (appliances, lights, and many others.) and again to the identical energy supply.

Clean Fuel Vehicle – is incessantly incorrectly used interchangeably with “alternative gasoline automobile.” Generally, refers to vehicles that use low-emission, clear-burning fuels. Public Resources Code Section 25326 defines clear fuels, for functions of the section solely, as fuels designated by ARB for use in LEVs, ULEVs or ZEVs and embody, but aren’t restricted to, electricity, ethanol, hydrogen, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, natural fuel, and reformulated gasoline.

CLERESTORY – A wall with home windows that’s between two completely different (roof) levels. The home windows are used to provide pure light right into a constructing.

Climate CHANGE – Additionally known as ‘world local weather change’. The term ‘climate change’ is sometimes used to consult with all forms of climatic inconsistency, however as a result of the Earth’s local weather is never static, the time period is extra correctly used to suggest a significant change from one climatic condition to another. In some circumstances, ‘local weather change’ has been used synonymously with the time period, ‘global warming’; scientists nevertheless, have a tendency to use the term within the wider sense to additionally embody pure modifications in climate. See also Enhanced Greenhouse Impact. (EPA)

Climate ZONE – A geographical area is the state that has explicit weather patterns. These zones are used to find out the type of constructing requirements which can be required by law.

CLUNKERS – also known as gross-polluting or tremendous- emitting vehicles, i.e., autos that emit far in excess of the emission standards by which the car was certified when it was new.

COAL – Black or brown rock, formed under pressure from organic fossils in prehistoric instances, that’s mined and burned to provide heat vitality.

COAL CONVERSION – Changing coal into synthetic gas or liquid fuels. See GASIFICATION.

COAL OIL – Oil that can be obtained by distilling bituminous coal.

COAL SEAM – A mass of coal, occurring naturally at a specific location, that may be commercially mined.

COAL SLURRY PIPELINE – A pipe system that transports pulverized coal suspended in water.

COGENERATOR – Cogenerators use the waste heat created by one process, for instance during manufacturing, to supply steam which is used, in turn, to spin a turbine and generate electricity. Cogenerators may even be QFs.

COGENERATION – Cogeneration means the sequential use of power for the production of electrical and useful thermal energy. The sequence can be thermal use adopted by energy production or the reverse, topic to the next requirements:

(a) Not less than 5 % of the cogeneration challenge’s complete annual power output shall be in the form of useful thermal energy.

(b) Where useful thermal vitality follows energy production, the helpful annual energy output plus one-half the useful annual thermal power output equals not lower than forty two.5 p.c of any natural fuel and oil power enter.

COKE – A porous stable left over after the incomplete burning of coal or of crude oil.

COKE OVEN Gasoline – Fuel given off by coke ovens. Coke oven fuel is interchangeable with objective gas.

Combined CYCLE PLANT – An electric producing station that makes use of waste heat from its gasoline turbines to produce steam for conventional steam turbines.

Combined HEAT AND Power — Also referred to as “cogeneration,” it is the simultaneous manufacturing of electricity and heat from a fuel supply corresponding to pure gasoline, biomass, biogas, coal, waste heat, or oil. Combined heat and power isn’t a single know-how, but an integrated energy system that may be modified relying on the power consumer’s needs.

Mixed HYDRONIC House/WATER HEATING – a system wherein each house heating and home water heating are provided by the same water heater(s).

COMBUSTION Burning – Speedy oxidation, with the release of energy within the form of heat and light.

Comfort CONDITIONING – The strategy of treating air to simultaneously control its temperature, humidity, cleanliness, and distribution to fulfill the comfort requirements of the occupants of the conditioned house.

Consolation ZONE – The range of temperatures over which the vast majority of individuals feel comfy (neither too hot nor too chilly).

Competitive TRANSMISSION Charge – A non-bypassable cost that clients pay to a utility for the restoration of its stranded prices.

COMMERCIALIZATION – Packages or actions that enhance the worth or decrease the cost of integrating new services or products into the electricity sector. (See “Sustained Orderly Development.”)

COMPRESSED Pure Fuel (CNG) – natural gas that has been compressed below excessive strain, sometimes between 2,000 and 3,600 pounds per square inch, held in a container. The gas expands when launched to be used as a gasoline.

CONDENSATE – Liquid fuel obtained by burning fuel or vapor produced from oil and fuel wells.

CONDENSER – A heat exchanger during which the refrigerant, compressed to a hot gas, is condensed to liquid by rejecting heat.

CONDITIONED Floor Space – The floor area of enclosed conditioned spaces on all floors measured from the exterior surfaces of exterior partitions for nonresidential buildings and from the exterior surfaces of exterior partitions for residential buildings. [See California Code of Rules, Title 24, Section 2-5302]

CONDITIONED Area – Enclosed house that’s both straight conditioned house or indirectly conditioned space. [See California Code of Laws, Title 24, Part 2-5302]

CONDITIONED House, Directly — An enclosed area that’s supplied with heating tools that has a capability exceeding 10 Btus/(hr-ft2), or with cooling equipment that has a capability exceeding 10 Btus/(hr-ft2). An exception is if the heating and cooling tools is designed and thermostatically controlled to take care of a process setting temperature less than sixty five degrees Fahrenheit or better than eighty five levels Fahrenheit for the entire house the equipment serves. [See California Code of Rules, Title 24, Part 2- 5302]

CONDITIONED House, Not directly –Enclosed space that: (1) has a greater area weighted heat transfer coefficient (u-worth) between it and directly conditioned areas than between it and the outdoors or unconditioned space; (2) has air transferred from immediately conditioned area shifting via it at a price exceeding three air adjustments per hour.

CONDUCTANCE – The quantity of heat, in Btu’s, that will movement through one sq. foot of material in one hour, when there’s a 1 diploma F temperature difference between each surfaces. Conductance values are given for a particular thickness of fabric, not per inch thickness.

CONDUCTION – The transfer of heat vitality by a cloth (stable, liquid or gas) by the movement of adjoining atoms and molecules without gross displacement of the particles.

CONDUCTIVITY (k) – The quantity of heat that will move via one square foot of homogeneous materials, one inch thick, in one hour, when there is a temperature distinction of 1 diploma Fahrenheit between its surfaces.

CONGESTION – A condition that occurs when insufficient switch capability is available to implement all of the popular schedules concurrently.

CONGESTION Management – Alleviation of congestion by the ISO.

CONSERVATION – Steps taken to cause less energy to be used than would in any other case be the case. These steps could contain improved effectivity, avoidance of waste, lowered consumption, etc. They could involve installing tools (reminiscent of a computer to make sure environment friendly power use), modifying equipment (corresponding to making a boiler extra efficient), adding insulation, altering habits patterns, and so forth.

CONTINENTAL SHELF – The portion of the sea backside that slopes regularly from the sting of a continent. Normally defined as areas where water is lower than 200 meters or 600 toes deep.

CONTINGENCY PLANNING – The Energy Fee’s strategy to reply to impending power emergencies comparable to curtailment or scarcity of gas or power due to pure disasters or the results of human or political causes, or a transparent menace to public well being, safety or welfare. The contingency plan specifies state actions to alleviate the impacts of a attainable scarcity or disruption of petroleum, pure gasoline or electricity. The plan is reviewed and updated at least every five years, with the final plan being adopted in 1993. Legislative authority for the California Power Shortage Contingency Plan is found in Public Resources Code, Section 25216.5.

CONTRACT PATH – Probably the most direct physical transmission tie between two interconnected entities. When utility techniques interchange power, the switch is presumed to take place throughout the “contract path,” notwithstanding the electrical undeniable fact that power movement within the community will distribute in accordance with network circulation situations. This term can also mean to arrange for power transfer between systems. (See additionally Parallel path movement)

CONTRACTS FOR Differences (CFD) — A sort of bilateral contract the place the electric technology vendor is paid a hard and fast amount over time which is a mixture of the quick-term market price and an adjustment with the purchaser for the difference. For instance, a generator may sell a distribution firm power for ten years at 6-cents/kilowatt-hour (kWh). That energy is bid into Poolco at some low /kWh worth (to make sure it is all the time taken). The vendor then gets the market clearing price from the pool and the purchaser pays the producer the distinction between the Poolco promoting value and 6-cents/kWh (or vice versa if the pool value ought to go above the contract worth).

Management Area – An electric power system, or a mix of electric energy programs, to which a common automated generation control (AGC) is utilized to match the facility output of producing items within the realm to demand. The control area of the ISO is the state of California.

CONVECTION – Transferring heat by transferring air, or transferring heat by means of upward movement of particles of liquid or gasoline heat from beneath.

Conventional Fuel – Natural gas occurring in nature, versus synthetic fuel.

CONVERSION – machine or package by which a conventional gasoline automobile is modified to an alternate fuel automobile.

CONVERSION Gas Issue – A number stating units of 1 system in corresponding values of another system.

Transformed Automobile – a car initially designed to function on gasoline that has been modified or altered to run on an alternate gas.

CONVERTER – Any technology that modifications the potential power in a fuel into a special from of power reminiscent of heat or movement. The term is also used to imply an apparatus that adjustments the quantity or high quality of electrical vitality.

COOLING Capacity, LATENT — Accessible refrigerating capacity of an air conditioning unit for removing latent heat from the area to be conditioned.

COOLING Capacity, Wise — Accessible refrigerating capability of an air conditioning unit for eradicating sensible heat from the area to be conditioned.

COOLING Capacity, Whole – Out there refrigerating capacity of an air conditioner for removing sensible heat and latent heat from the area to be conditioned.

COOLING Diploma DAY – A unit of measure that indicates how heavy the air conditioning wants are under sure weather conditions.

COOLING LOAD – The rate at which heat must be extracted from an area in order to keep up the specified temperature throughout the house.

COOLING LOAD TEMPERATURE Difference (CLTD) – A price utilized in cooling load calculations for the effective temperature distinction (delta T) across a wall or ceiling, which accounts for the impact of radiant heat as effectively as the temperature distinction.

COOLING TOWER – A system for evaporatively cooling water by contact with air.

CO-OP – This is the generally used term for a rural electric cooperative. Rural electric cooperatives generate and buy wholesale energy, arrange for the transmission of that power, after which distribute the ability to serve the demand of rural clients. Co-ops sometimes turn out to be involved in ancillary companies reminiscent of power conservation, load administration and different demand-side administration applications with the intention to serve their clients at the very least cost.

COOPERATIVE (Electric utility) – A joint venture organized by customers to make electric utility service out there in their space.

COP (COEFFICIENT OF Efficiency) – – Used to fee the performance of a heat pump, the COP is the ratio of the speed of useful heat output delivered by the whole heat pump unit (unique of supplementary heating) to the corresponding charge of energy enter, in consistent items and underneath particular conditions. Burned, a cord of wooden produces about 5 million calories of power.

Company Common Fuel Financial system (CAFE) – A sales-weighted average gasoline mileage calculation, by way of miles per gallon, based mostly on city and highway gas economic system measurements carried out as a part of the federal emissions check procedures. CAFE necessities had been instituted by the Energy Coverage and Conservation Act of 1975 (89 Statute. 902) and modified by the Automobile Fuel Effectivity Act of 1980 (ninety four Statute. 1821). For main manufacturers, CAFE levels in 1996 are 27.5 miles per gallon for gentle-obligation cars. CAFE standards additionally apply to some light trucks. The alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988 permits for an adjusted calculation of the fuel economy of autos that may use various fuels, including gas-versatile and twin-gas vehicles.

CRUDE OIL – Petroleum as found within the earth, earlier than it is refined into oil merchandise. Also known as CRUDE.

CRUDE OIL STOCKS – Stocks held at refineries and at pipeline terminals. Doesn’t embrace stocks held on leases (storage amenities adjoining to the wells). In California, crude oil stocks in 1990 are roughly 18 million barrels on any given day.

CSE (CALIFORNIA SEASONAL Efficiency) – See See Seasonal Effectivity.

CUBIC FOOT – The commonest unit of measurement of natural fuel quantity. It equals the quantity of gasoline required to fill a volume of 1 cubic foot beneath said conditions of temperature, strain and water vapor. One cubic foot of pure gas has an power content of approximately 1,000 Btus. One hundred (one hundred) cubic ft equals one therm (100 ft3 = 1 therm).

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